Leopold Trepper: as to the chief “ Red chapel “ it was succeeded to escape from Gestapo paws?
on February 23, 1904, 105 years ago, in Nova Targ`s town (Small Poland, near Krakow) in the Jewish family the male baby to whom, according to parents, the brilliant destiny was prepared was born. Not for nothing he was named Leopold.
After leaving school Leopold moved to the neighboring, Katovitsky voivodeship, to the city of Dombrov - Gurnich, but here long was not late, having moved to Krakow where listened to lectures on psychology and sociology. Domb (such pseudonym Leopold took himself) was one of heads of the revolt of the Krakow workers which broke out in the fall of 1923. The ruined economy, a hyperinflation stirred up all Europe. September revolt in Bulgaria, Spain, Germany (it is enough to remember “ working government “ in Saxony), speeches of workers in Warsaw (initiated, according to Jozef Pilsudsky, red commissioners from Moscow) and, at last, apogee - revolt in Krakow on November 6 the day before 6 - y anniversaries of a socialist revolution in Russia). It was the response to introduction of state of emergency and creation voyenno - field vessels just Pilsudsky.
Here also trust after that Pilsudsky
the Risen workers two groups the uhlan disarmed, and, having received the weapon, managed even to take an armored car. In Krakow barricades were built, but already next day the Polish socialist party and Pilsudsky`s government sat down at a negotiating table. The government promised to take a number of measures in response to disarmament of workers. Socialists fulfilled this requirement, workers handed over the weapon... here - that also began prosecution.
As one of active participants of revolt, Leopold Trepper did not begin to expect arrest and managed to leave Poland and to get over century. Palestine. The matter is that in Poland and in Hungary in 1924 the wave of the Jewish riots as a result of which in Palestine which was then under the British mandate there were in five years 82 thousand Jews swept.
Leopold did not begin to drain bogs of the Izreelsky valley and the valley Hefer and the more so to be engaged in agricultural work. At it was more “ intellectual “ use of forces: he became one of heads of the Palestinian communist party. Also succeeded in this activity: in 1929 the British administration made the decision to send Leopold Trepper from the country.
of the Three first of year in France
Was necessary to come back to Europe. Great Britain, by itself, was closed, to Germany not really - that there was a wish, there was France where it also arrived. But decided to impose the communistic views to nobody this time, and settled in the usual newspaper in Paris. However, not absolutely usual for France, at least because Yiddish was the main language for it.
But soon Leopold made up the mind to a new decisive step, decided to go to Moscow. It was received with open arms and without any examinations accepted on faculty of journalism of Communistic university of ethnic minorities. Here Trepper proved not only thoughtful and serious, but also quite perspective from the point of view of recruitment. The staff of Main Intelligence Directorate of Red Army repeatedly talked to it and was convinced that the ambitious young man quite approaches for a role of the intelligence agent - the illegal immigrant.
Berzin risked, the Trapper even moreLeopold with pleasure agreed to work with
for the Soviet investigation. But soon dumbfounded the chief head of Lubyanka - Jan Karlovic Berzin who, by the way, and suggested the foreign guest to cooperate. The head of GRU had an accurate plan - to create an extensive network of intelligence agents across all Europe, but Trepper thought up a clever move as to make everything without raising excess questions and suspicion. It is necessary to struggle with capitalists by their methods - to become the successful businessman. And the more richly - the better! Who will suspect that the millionaire actually Soviet spy?!
Seed capital remained - to find a kickshaw. And therefore Trepper offered Berzin “ to lend “ several tens of thousands of dollars for foundation of firm. And then it is possible to open safely its branches in many countries interesting investigation. Leopold even stretched to the general the list from several surnames, the future assistants. From one view of it of the unprepared person the kondrashka could be enough! Leo Grosfogel, Gilel Katz, Alfred Korben, Gary Robenzon.
And as if you arrived on Berzin`s place?! On the one hand the temptation is big to perform operation, and with another - absolutely not smaller risk. When tens of thousands of dollars turn out in Leopold Trepper`s hands whether it will turn out as in the known Russian saying: “ Go on a wild-goose chase! “. Eventually, it had very famous Hammer`s example...
But Trepper looked in the face to Berzin so faithfully, so honestly! Not to give it this solid sum meant to offend in his face all ethnic minorities time!
While raised money, to the general there was a trouble. On November 27, 1937 he was arrested as the enemy of the people and “ helper of Trotskyists “ and several months later it is shot. But Trepper made the correct decision only in this situation - he did not begin to fuss (and most it was possible to get under distribution of elephants!) and decided to wait. The patience was rewarded - money under the " organization; " multinational company; were given out. With them enterprising future intelligence agent also left for Belgium. To be fair it is necessary to tell that Trepper in " is more; pocket “ to the Soviet state did not climb. But business developed so that all gasped.
Trepper`s Enterprise struck both Russians, and Germans, and French
Already several months of later two Leo - Trepper and Grosfogel - opened several branches in Belgium, France and the Scandinavian countries at once, show huge interest in the German industry, promising “ great buildings “ in the European countries occupied by Hitlerites. Figuratively speaking after tank columns of Wehrmacht to Brussels the limousine in which sit two Leo arrives! They and did not need to spy - Germans set tasks to build and the enterprises for placement of military orders, and military camps for placement of troops.
In the Soviet GRU a contribution “ businessmen “ estimated quickly. Already a year later after the beginning of operation, in July, 1940 to Trepper give the rank of the general of Red Army and appoint the resident of military investigation in all Western Europe. From now on Leopold becomes the grandee - the chief and settles in Paris.
Whether there were military preparations of Hitler, his idea of blitzkrieg unexpected for the Soviet investigation? At all not. Another thing is that Stalin did not believe in Hitler`s perfidy, but knew each his step. As well as the fact that about a half of the means obtained by Trepper`s firms goes for bribery of the high-ranking ranks of Hitlerite rack. Here only one example: when to one of ministers of the German government charge to equip points for installation of long-range batteries on the coast of La - Mansha and to construct armor the bunker for submarines, he addresses Jean Gilbert (a new, French surname of Trepper).
All equipment, except for, naturally, arms, quickly and at the similar price is delivered from the Parisian firm “ Simeks “ and from the Belgian firm “ Simeks &K “ there arrive cars for laying of roads, building materials, concrete mixers, tower cranes etc. And the most important - Trepper placed on “ financial needle “ people on whom in Germany a lot of things depended. It to them money, they to it - the most favorable orders.
Is good that French did not manage to shoot...
So prompt “ growth “ no firm there was unnoticed and French Resistance which heads in absentia sentenced Jean Gilbert to death for active cooperation with invaders, and only waited a case to carry out an action. But they did not manage to make it - Trepper himself contacted the heads (having communications with Moscow) and, without showing cards, suggested to install the reliable channel with the Soviet capital. Since then Leopold became also “ rich person “ for Resistance, financing its activity … But also it to enterprising Trepper it seems to
insufficiently. It “ lures “ several hundreds of Parisian prostitutes who begin “ to leak information “ received from Hitlerite officers to daddy Jean. Numbers and places of dislocations of military units, their movement - all this soon becomes property of Moscow.
And at the very beginning of June, 1941 Trepper reported to Moscow - attack on the USSR will take place on June 22, 1941! But Stalin was angry - what it at you for the intelligence agent whom the English spies cheat?!
of the Radiogramm intercepted, but codes were silent...
With treacherous attack of Hitlerites to the Soviet Union a certain confusion with transfer of radiogramms arose. Under laws of investigation, the transmitter should not work more than half an hour, otherwise the possibility of its direction finding sharply increases. But to our radio operators whom Hitlerites soon called “ pianists “ it was necessary to work for five hours in a row! It is not surprising that at the end of June Hitlerites manage to intercept the first radiogramms. The truth was not succeeded to decipher them to fascists. And in several months they “ cover “ and the transmitter.
Trepper gives command to transfer “ " radio center; to Brussels, but also here it is possible to work only several months, in December, 1941, Hitlerites find a secret address where find radiogramms in German, blackened for a taynopisa and capacity with bacteria of dysentery and typhus! On the apartment arrest one of the closest assistants Trepper - Mikhail Makarov (on some sources, the nephew Vyacheslav Molotov). In operational official reports Hitlerites call this espionage " network; Red chapel “. to
, How many a string not to curl...
After a failure in Brussels the radio center is transferred to Paris where abverovets bring the special equipment for detection of radio transmitters. But even the most modern equipment does not allow to make it at once. At least, half a year more “ Red chapel “ with impunity works in the back of Hitlerites.
But in June, 1942 there was an outcome of all this history. Then codebreakers manage to read the first texts. Addresses of the Berlin group into which enter Auber - the lieutenant Harro Schultz - Boyzen using protection of a reykhsmarshal of Goering, his wife Libertas, one of officials of the highest Ministry of Economics doctor Arvid Harnak fall into hands of an abver even. Only one this group manages to send over 500 messages to Moscow!
Almost third part of members of group (117 people from 290) manages to be arrested by August 30, 1942. Many of them do not maintain tortures and give the colleagues, however many are silent up to the end, for example doctor Kummerov who after several weeks of interrogations and three unsuccessful attempts of suicide jumps out from the sixth floor. Except it, four men and one woman commit suicide. Business is supervised directly by Himmler and Goering.
In December, 1942 the court pronounces 64 death sentences to agents of Moscow. In Paris the group of an abver investigating together with Gestapo case “ Red chapel “ the grandee - the chief has the indistinct photo, but Germans do not manage to seize Trepper (Gilbert), his closest assistants Grosfogel and Katz. Trepper hides on the secret apartment and sends an encryption to the Center about a series of failures and probability of radio game of an abver. The grandee - the chief plans to translate what remained from his group, from Paris on the South of France to continue performance of tasks of the Soviet Center.
Price of a painful tooth!to Leopold remained to
only a couple of days to carry out operation on a performance of own death. Both the false body, and the certificate on death signed by the authoritative doctor though lay down and " is already ready; die “. But here at Trepper tooth terribly ached! It phoned to the dentist and that asked it to arrive through a couple of hours. Whether it is necessary to say that right after Leopold`s call it became known the Gestapo man.
Leopold drove up to clinic with the friend Gilel Katz. Gilel remained in the car, it at that moment and rescued him! About arrest the grandee - the chief “ Red chapel “ right there it was reported personally on Hitler!
And is farther in an abver everything was made to convert Trepper. And it with visible pleasure accepted this game (Moscow was aware already that so can occur). To Trepper, which in the very first days “ handed over “ and Katz and Grosfogel, trusted more and more, however, with it every second there was an officer of Gestapo. Once to one of them - to Willie Berg it became bad, it had an attack, and obliging Trepper suggested it to get drugs. They approached a drugstore near one of stations. Bergh was “ it is crooked “ from pain and did not go out of the car. Trepper went. And, naturally, did not leave a drugstore. Later Bergh learned that in this drugstore there were two exits. However, this knowledge costed it execution!
All Paris was nearly literally put by Hitlerites on ears. But they could not check tens of thousands of apartments of the Parisian capital even. Trepper sat out in the usual apartment in which mother of one of the French communists lived. And as soon as an opportunity was given, got over on the South of France where was at war in the ranks of Resistance.
the Cold meeting in Moscow
In January, 1945 Leopold together with the head of reconnaissance group in Switzerland and his deputy of villages to the plane also went to Moscow. He hardly counted that to it right there will give the rank the Hero of the Soviet Union, but also that he from now on will see this world only through a window on Lubyanka, the same seemed to it improbable. But and it happened. Nearly 2,5 years lasted a consequence and only in June, 1947 condemned Leopold Trepper for 15 years of camps. Only a bit later term “ knocked off “ till 10 years.
However Trepper was released in 1954, under amnesty. The own children refused to recognize in it the father - all were sure that Leopold died in 1943. In 1957 to it with a family allowed to move to Poland. But in 1970 after several anti-Semitic performances Leopold asked the authorities of Poland to release it to Israel.
The first there left children, after them the father. In Israel he also died. There was it on January 18, 1982. It left behind the book “ Big game “ …