When and why celebrate the World day of nurses?
celebrate more than hundred years this holiday in the different countries of the world on May 12. But officially he was founded in 1971 by the International council of nurses. Every two years the International Committee of the Red Cross hands on May 12 to the best nurses of 50 medals in honor of the English sister of mercy Florence Naytingeyl. Why Florence Naytingeyl became “ culprit “ this holiday?
Florence was born on May 12, 1820 in a well-founded English family. It was well-educated, widely-read and … not really obedient daughter. Having got to a shelter for poor people once, Florence decided to go to Europe, wishing to study nurse business. Many friends and acquaintances laughed at it, calling the eccentric woman. Willful Florence was deprived of fatherly inheritance, but also it did not frighten her. Over time she created the method of care of patients which seems extremely simple today.
She sought to realize it, but not everyone was ready to it. It found understanding only in the French community of the priest Vinzent Paul. Florence strictly watched purity of air in chambers where there were patients. Created good leaving and developed a certain diet. After a while mortality “ it “ patients decreased twice. And soon popularity about progress Florence reached borders of native England. During the Crimean war (1854 - 1856) it gave help in creation of field hospitals and treatment of wounded.
In post-war years Naytingeyl participated in medical reforms of the country. She tried to obtain that medical institutions were equipped with systems of ventilation, had good water supply, entered the strict reporting of medical personnel under care of patients. All life she was engaged in charity. Florence became one of the first women who received from hands of the king of Britain, George V, in 1907 the award “ For merits before the Fatherland “ …
The love to the closest people - to mother, the father, the son, the daughter, the brother, the sister, the wife (husband) was always inherent in the person. But gradually concept “ neighbor “ extended. The help and care of patients became one of the main manifestations of love to people.
In Ancient Greece and Rome there were people giving help to the giving birth women. As considered “ father of medicine “ Hippocrates, only those women who possessed life experience could be midwifes. And in the treatise the ancient Roman doctor Soran Efessky wrote that they “ have to be competent, clever and mobile “. In general development of case on care of sick people was promoted by distribution of Christianity. So, at monasteries open “ diakoniya “ and the almshouses intended for treatment of monastic employees, and then and for all patients.
In the 4th century AD the Roman emperor Constantine the Great establishes public hospitals. Later, in the 11th century, in many cities of Europe the communities consisting of women who devote themselves to service to mercy business are created. The countess Elizabeth Tyuringenskaya, the daughter of the Hungarian king who on the means opened hospital is known, organized a children`s shelter where she worked then.
In 1235 in honor of Elizabeth the community " was created; elizavetinok “ who followed its example. In the Middle Ages secular and knightly awards which members did charity work are created. For example, in Jerusalem Saint Lazar`s award (from there was a concept - infirmary) looked after leprous patients. Roman Agnessa, the mother superior of an award of the Saint Ioann founded in 1099 became famous for the help to patients. Activity of this award gained big distribution in Italy, Spain, France, England.
Work of members of an award of Saint Ioann in Paris is known. In 1348 when here plague epidemic flashed, during care of patients more than 500 women died, but other followers of an award continued to treat patients.
In the XVII century the French priest Vinzent Paul suggested to call the women who are looking after patients, “ sisters of mercy “ and then there was also a phrase “ elder sister “. The assistant to the priest Paul Louise de Marillac created special school on training of sisters of mercy. Since the XIX century of a community and school are created everywhere, including, and in Russia.
But still earlier, under Peter I`s decree, in 1715 female work was used on care of patients in infirmaries and hospitals. Then involvement of women for this work was cancelled. As nurses began to use retired soldiers. Again women - nurses appeared only in the middle of the XVIII century. Then the service " was created; compassionate widows “ who was sponsored by the empress Maria Fiodorovna.
In fact, we are obliged by a start of motion of sisters of mercy in Russia to the great princess Aleksandra Nikolaevna, the daughter of the emperor Nicholas I who based Sacredly - the Troitsk community in St. Petersburg. Then there was a community in Moscow from blessing of the princess Sofya Shcherbatova.
It is necessary to notice that communities began to open also in other cities. At the beginning of 1913 in 109 communities over 3 worked - x thousands of sisters of mercy. For many years the clothes of sisters of mercy practically did not change. It consisted of a dress of brown color, a white apron with the red cross sewed on a breast and a white kerchief on the head.
However World War I, revolution of 1917, civil war which led the country to ruin, hunger, epidemics, demanded from the government of taking measures to creation of the available medical help. Not incidentally national commissariat of health care and the Russian society of the Red Cross adopted the provision on schools for nurses. The uniform system of secondary medical education was created only in 40 - e years of the XX century.
The best traditions of sisters of mercy were not forgotten in the years of World War II. About 800 thousand nurses and sandruzhinnitsa worked at different fronts.
After World War II preparation of average medical personnel underwent many reforms in our country.
Reorganization of medical schools was carried out to medical schools, also the training profilnost changed. But only in 60 - e years of the last century began to open medical schools, advanced training courses of shots at large medical institutions, being guided by requirements of WHO (World Health Organization) that care of the sister of the patient is a multidimensional process.
In the years of reorganization the government developed the Program of development of health care and medical science in the Russian Federation, according to it development of primary physician - the sanitary help (PHC) became one of the main directions in the organization of medical business. Creation of Association of nurses which in 1993 acquired the status of interregional became a big event for all health workers. It allowed Russia to become the active participant of the International council of nurses.
In 2008 on the 23rd congress of the International council madam Hiroko Minami from Japan, the leader of Association of nurses in the homeland was elected its president. Today this International organization has an opportunity to put into practice the program of the UN “ Purposes of the millennium “ that allows nurses of a message work in all countries on prevention of diseases, assistance of sick AIDS, to combat hunger and poverty.
But also today at us tens of communities which work was interrupted in the years of revolution of 1917 work. Their revival began since the beginning of 1990 - x years. Then there were educational institutions on training of sisters of mercy at temples and monasteries. Sisters of mercy give help to people in hospitals, hospices, shelters … They still give to people heat of the soul and the kind word.