What wines happen?
of Wine so differ from each other on the structure, a way of preparation, tastes and nutritional value that classification of wines, uniform for all countries, does not exist.
On the content of the added alcohol they are divided on natural and fortified.
Natural wines are cooked only from fruits of a grape plant without addition of the substances used at development of wines of other categories, in particular, without alcohol and beet sugar. By production of such wines the sugar which is contained in grape berry or is vybrazhivat up to the end, or specially leave nedobrozhenny for giving to wine of special smack.
On the content of sugar natural wines divide on dry, moist, semisweet and dessert, fortified - on dry, dessert and liqueur.
Dry wines receive at a full sbrazhivaniye of juice, they differ in ease and tenderness of taste and characteristic pleasant sourness. At their name usually there is a name of a grade of grapes of which they are made: Aligote, Riesling, Sylvester, Rkatsiteli. For preparation of these wines vintage is carried out when content of sugar in it reaches 18 - 20%. After pressing of grapes use only the first, most qualitative fractions of juice. Correctly made high-quality wines have an own bright shade of aroma and taste.
On color of wine can be white, pink or red - but it depends not only on color of grape berry, but also on manufacturing techniques.
Dry red wines differ from white also a peculiar bouquet and taste. Completeness of taste and easy tartness are inherent in them. In these wines the bouquet of such grades of grapes as Cabernet, Saperavi, Merlot and others is well developed. Vintage for production of red wines is carried out when content of sugar in it reaches 20 - 23% that corresponds to accumulation in it of the maximum quantity of the painting and aromatic substances. Therefore the fortress of these wines is higher, than at white, and acidity is lower. The tannic, painting and aromatic substances are in firm parts of a bunch therefore red wines prepare by fermentation not of juice, and alburnum. Red wines are richer with biologically active agents, than white.
For receiving moist and semisweet natural wines fermentation of a mash or alburnum do not finish, stopping it by means of special processing methods partially to keep sugar. Grapes for these wines are gathered on reaching them the highest sugar content (23 - 26%). Such wines - rather easy and very harmonious because in them there is both a small content of alcohol of natural fermentation, and natural sweet. These wines are for the consumer in the increased demand therefore they are forged most often.
Very sweet wines are best of all combined with dessert dishes therefore are called dessert. Fortified alcohol sweet wines contain quite high percent of alcohol - from 16 to 22% and sugar from 3 to 7%. Light sweet wines contain even more sugar, and alcohol from 10 to 16%.
On category of quality of wine divide on table, branded and collection. Table wines are intended for a lunch, serve them to various dishes.
In vintage wine not only the grade of grapes of which it is made is important, but also where these grapes grow by what way wine is made and where it is poured. All these characteristics also provide quality of drink.
The wines made from grapes only of one grade call sepazhny. Wines make also of mix (blend) of different grades of grapes. Good results are achieved by the correct selection of the components entering a blend. Low fortress (9 - 12 degrees) is characteristic of blending wines.
In the European classification there are two categories - the table wines and qualitative wines made in a certain region.
In the French classification of such categories four.
The first - table wines.
The second - wine of lands - their production is attached to wine-making regions. They are called still local wines.
The third - the wines which are rigidly attached to rather small regions. They are called vintage wines of the superior quality.
The fourth - wine of controlled names by origin. This highest category of French wines. The most expensive, but also the most elite. Each wine is made only in one strict place, from the grapes which are grown up only on one vineyard and sometimes even, only one, strictly certain part of a vineyard.
If in the name of wine there is a word “ To Kr “ it means that grapes for wine are grown up on a ground, historically the best, than surrounding sites.
On the content of sugar sparkling wines are subdivided into six categories which partly “ are imposed “ at each other:
extra - brut (extra - brut): with the content of sugar to 6 g/l;
brut (brut): with the content of sugar to 15 g/l;
the driest (extra - sec): with the content of sugar of 12 - 20 g/l;
dry (sec): with the content of sugar of 17 - 35 g/l;
moist (demi - sec): with the content of sugar of 33 - 55 g/l;
sweet (doux): with the content of sugar more than 50 g/l.
In the last decades production of moist sparkling wines is reduced, production of sweet is almost stopped.
The best sparkling wines made in France are called champagnes.