Rus Articles Journal

It is useful to smoke! If to smoke correctly and moderately.

Doctor of psychology Valery Rozanov.

It is useful to smoke! If to smoke correctly and moderately.

Probably, each of us read a lot of tactical and I would tell immoral publications on harm of smoking. But very few people thought that he stands behind these purely tactical articles about immorality and harm of smoking, read nicotine? And who writes it? The majority of publications is written at the suggestion of doctors. Maybe everything began with giving of those with whom ceased to share profit on tobacco sale in due time? That is druggists and sellers of their services and goods - doctors who smoke, despite the terrible truth about nicotine which is born in masses.

Seems, time " came; to stir up naphthalenic stereotypes about smoking, isn`t it?

I will make a reservation At once, everything that is written below fairly when smoking moderately and smoking of good tobacco. Imagine, the use of COFFEE would be how harmful if in each cafe, instead of one cup of the supporting drink, you twenty would force to buy at once! In America, in a legislative order, it is forbidden to sell cigarettes by the piece. Let`s forbid to sell by the piece glasses with coffee! You want some coffee - buy twenty cups at once and go choke on health...

At the beginning of a few historic facts about tobacco (is more detailed at the end).

600 - 1000 year of N. E. UAKSAKTU

First graphic representation of the smoker. The clay vessel is found, and on it Indian Maiya smoking the curtailed tobacco leaves drawn by a thread is represented. Indians Maiya called smoking sik`ar. IMPORTANT! Indians used smoking not with the purpose to be twisted, and for communication with spirits by Gods, enlightenments, that is smoking was a ceremony - ritual of 1 - 3 cigar in day, and maybe not every day. Similar rituals of smoking and not only tobacco are in esoteric practicians almost everything people of the world. On a pack in day no who smoked! The same concerns also our Caucasian long-livers, all smoke 1 - 3 tubules of tobacco a day. Actually it found reflection even in an image of the Caucasian long-liver - the strong old man in a felt cloak with a tube against mountains. So continuation

1492 Columbus meet by

the first smokers.

tobacco was offered on October 15, 1492 to Christopher Columbus by the American Indians as a gift.

1497 Robert Paine, Columbus`s companion on the second travel of 1493, writes the first report on tobacco and its use.

of 1531 SANTO - DOMINGO

Begins the European cultivation of tobacco.

1560 PORTUGAL, FRANCE

of Jeanne of Nicko de Villemeyn, the French ambassador in Portugal, writes medical mission of tobacco, describing it as panacea. Nicko sends Nicotiana rustica to the French yard.

1566 FRANCE

of Jeanne Villemeyn sends snuff tobacco as a gift to Ekaterina Medici, the queen of France, to the help from her headaches. But in a consequence it changes tobacco for Herba Regina.

1577 ENGLAND

MEDICINE: Frempton translates into doctor Monard`s English. The European doctors find new application for tobacco - it is applied from a toothache, by losses of nails, worms, a fetid odor from a mouth, at tetanus and cancer.

1601 TURKEY

Smoking appears in the country and quickly wins popularity while church attendants do not condemn him. ENGLAND

Doctors express to

1603 the concern that tobacco is used without medical instructions. They complain to the king James I.

1624 Church begins to separate the people smelling tobacco, according to Holy Fathers sneezing too resembles sexual ecstasy.

1634 EUROPE the Greek church makes the decision that tobacco smoking is guilty of death of Nov and, respectively, forbids tobacco.

1635 FRANCE

the King allows tobacco sale only according to instructions of doctors.

1637 FRANCE

the King Louis XIII himself smells tobacco and withdraws a ban on these grades of tobacco.

1660 ENGLAND

RESTORATION of the MONARCHY: The yard of the king Charles II comes back to London from exile in Paris. Having brought with itself rule of use of snuff tobacco which quickly is become an aristocratic type of its use. During government of the king Charles (1660 - 1685) cultivation of tobacco in England is forbidden, except for private gardens. It becomes with the purpose to keep receipts in treasury from virginsky import. It is short

, but financial side of a question - the monopoly escaping from hands of doctors and druggists and money from tobacco sale is already visible. Actually since the moment when they lost all opportunities to tidy up new medicine read on modern dietary supplement and persecutions from medicine on tobacco and denial of its advantage began. For the sake of justice I cannot but note that in the old reference books of the doctor published till 1990, the paramedic can be found recommendations of use of smoking in the therapeutic purposes for example at colitis, simplification of cough at some diseases.

But purpose of my article research not, how many historical and financial side of a question. The inquisitive reader at desire will understand.

A we will talk about advantage, that suppress, and about myths about harm of nicotine.

The myth the first - household: begin to smoke from nonsense, but cannot throw from weakness (will). New data of molecular genetics, demonstrate that the habit to smoking is caused genetically - is so-called smoking gene which protects smokers from cancer so it is not excluded that the gene will be entered the smoker deprived of this universal natural protection. It turns out, to smoke harmfully not to everything, and features of an organism and a genetic structure allow to ignore preventions of the Ministry of Health? To leave off smoking is to subject an organism to a stress which is similar to sharp inflammatory process. It is not a metaphor. According to researches of university of Pennsylvania, at leaving off smoking the depression, muscular pains, temperature increase, changes of appetite and an exacerbation of all chronic diseases begins. Convincing experiences as the purpose of which were set was to track that occurs during so-called abstinency : samples of blood of volunteers showed that the level of Interlaken - 1 beta and Interlaken - 6, causing depressions, within a day sharply increased. According to scientists, only anti-inflammatory therapy can eliminate these symptoms.

the Myth of the second - to smokers to fill shortage of useful substances, are necessary additional vitamins which represent natural antidotes to a tobacco smoke. Actually, the smoking person is a person with special biochemistry which does not submit to average canons. For example, researches during which it became clear that " were conducted not so long ago; pure the beta - carotene provokes developing of a cancer tumor in the smoker`s organism.

As is told in the data published in New England Journal Of Medicine, the risk of developing of cancer at them at reception a beta - carotene increased by eighteen percent. Researches were conducted practically at the same time in Finland and the USA. According to the American data, at the smoking American who ate pure a beta - carotene (not in carrot), risk to develop lung cancer increased already for 28%. This is practically every third smoker on whom the compassionate family palms off food vitamin supplements.

Myth the third. To pregnant women from smoking one harm, and in general the smoking woman - not the woman at all. Here the most interesting begins. It became clear that not always. There is also an advantage though the mechanism is not quite clear. Naturally, it does not mean that in maternity chambers there will be hookahs and to lie collections of tabak on a complication case at childbirth... Nevertheless, it turned out that at the smoking pregnant women the risk of development of a preeklampsiya and eklampsiya (by Brockhaus`s definition it is the spasms at childbirth similar on epileptic, at the woman in labor vomiting, loss of consciousness begins, there is a foam from a mouth) is reduced by 30 - 50%. Besides, it became clear that the hypertension of pregnant women occurs among smokers less often. Moreover, so-called vomiting of pregnant women occurs at smokers much less often. According to the data published in quite decent Russian medical magazine in article about advantage of smoking in black and white it is written that tobacco works as anti-estrogen, smokers have a condition of deficiency of estrogen that positively affects the diseases arising against their surplus. Therefore intensive smoking reduces, for example, risk of development of fibrosis of a uterus (to 50%, especially at thin women and in a postmenopause) and, allegedly, endometriosis (if smoking is begun at early age) . What? And concerning a preeklampsiya and an eklampsiya it is noticed that synthesis of a tromboksan is oppressed, rates of increase in volume of plasma decrease or hypotensive effect of the thiocyanate which is contained in a tobacco smoke " affects;. In the same place: Some researchers point to reduction of number of cases of a Down syndrome among the newborns who were born at the smoking mothers in comparison with non-smoking...

Myth the fourth. If you combine smoking with alcohol, then thereby put double blow on an organism. Actually, at the smoker and - whenever possible drinking wine (it is important) - the person probability of emergence of intestinal polyps nearly 20 percent less, than at the non-smoking nondrinker or the person drinking beer. If you are confused by the word polyps literally it is that at the smoking person every day drinking a glass of wine, chances to die from cancer intestines less. Similar communication is observed also in cases with ulcer colitis. Strangely enough, the rule in more degree is suitable for men - women have results less impressive.

Myth the fifth. There is no such illness at which it would be useful to smoke.

Is! In New - York conducted quite curious research on twins. Scientists revealed strange dependence between genetic predispositions to smoking and Parkinson`s illness about 30 years ago, however the mechanism of dependence before recent time was unclear.

to understand this communication contradicting common sense, doctor Caroline Tanner (Caroline M. Tanner) and her colleagues from the Californian institute observed one-egg twins (with one set of genes) and raznoyaytsevy twins. 113 couples of twins - men participated in research, and in everyone couple one of brothers had Parkinson`s illness. It turned out that healthy brothers smoked many times more often and more patients. And this dependence was shown at one-egg twins stronger, than at raznoyaytsevy. On a total, among one-egg twins the risk of an illness of Parkinson was almost twice lower at those who smoked. The main conclusion which follows from experiment: smoking detains in some way development of an illness of Parkinson.

of the Separate mention deserve data on communication of smoking and mental health. In the provided review, against the general unambiguous data on negative influence of cherezmerny smoking on a mental state, pays attention here what thought: in certain cases the person unconsciously uses nicotine to create chemical balance in an organism for the purpose of harmonization of a mental state. The most obvious example - schizophrenics. Smoke the American data of 1986 of 88% of schizophrenics and more often than the healthy person: nearly one cigarette for another. It - that other, as self-control and self-treatment, as " nicotine; starts chemical mechanisms in a brain of the schizophrenic which compensate the defects provoked by an illness. It appears, nicotine helps the schizophrenic to cope with information overloads and to adjust perception. Even more those schizophrenics who are treated neuroleptics smoke. In other words, follows from all this that nicotine sometimes appears unique natural therapeutic means - " clear water; phytotherapy. Naturally, from this does not follow that malicious smokers use neuroleptics or all of them are schizophrenics.

Besides, separate data, besides evasively, testify about positive impact of tobacco smoking on aftozny ulcer stomatitis, ulcer colitis, allergic alveolit ( farmer`s lung and lung of the pigeon fancier ), hay fever. There are certificates that smoking oppresses skin inflammatory processes.

is Convincingly proved, positive influence of nicotine on a course of disease of Alzheimer. Also there are data that if to begin to smoke at advanced age, it can protect the growing old organism from a sclerosis of vessels, see articles of a certain Baron (Baron J. A.) Beneficial effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: Real, possible and spurious published in British Medical Bulletin in 1996.

Smoking can positively influence cerebration at healthy people that is shown by revival, the best information processing, acceleration of some motor reactions and, maybe, memory improvement.

Influence of tobacco on non-smoking is studied badly as all researches were conducted with participation of smokers at whom the increased tolerance to a tobacco smoke takes place and receptors are changed.

the Results received at supervision of the patients who were not stopping smoking too can be distorted. Nevertheless there are accurate data that nicotine increases intellectual working capacity and accelerates information processing at non-smoking .

Myth of the sixth. Do not smoke at least today . It is necessary to arrange at least fasting days without smoking and it to reduce harm from smoking. there is no

if you smoke, and then do not smoke, and then you smoke again, then to you, really it will go hard. Any break - per day, week, month with the subsequent smoking does bigger harm, than uniform skurivaniye . Therefore and to leave off smoking if to understand, it is necessary rationally . The group of researchers under the leadership of the British professor Bo Landbek analysed function of easy 1116 men and women (from 35 to 68 years). Volunteers were divided into three groups: constant smokers, those who tried to throw also those who never smoked. It turned out that at those who began to smoke a year later function of lungs or volume of the inhaled air decreased by 5%. At those who at all never tried to leave off smoking the volume of the inhaled air decreased by 3%. Professor came to a conclusion that those who could not live without cigarettes had a loss of a certain protective function of an organism from a tobacco smoke which remains - perhaps, for the rest of life - at betrayed smokers.

Myth of the seventh. Sport and smoking are incompatible. You will smoke - you will badly run. Very ambiguously. Can on the TV screen you and it you will see the public athlete with a cigarette, but in life as much as necessary. Read memoirs of trainers, there you will find much about what penalties and punishments they had to enter for the smoking champions that in other did not prevent to remain it champions, and can become them thanks to smoking. What so pulls athletes to light? And the matter is that thanks to smoking the compensatory mechanism of the person turns on and hemoglobin begins to transfer - to attach more oxygen than at the non-smoking person. In everyday life it as it is not noticeable, but at loads of sides of possible advantage will be obvious. It is necessary to tell that in professional sport, for example in track and field athletics will reach a limit of normal human opportunities long ago and no what trainings help to expand it. You can see it at competitions of marathoners (chambers seldom show it, it is necessary to be present personally) - athletes on the finish are waited by resuscitation crews. Why? Most of runners disabled people with brokhialny asthma thanks to what they can officially use dopes - drugs and the most interesting to us - the organism is more hardy, though with risk for life. Approximately too action renders also tobacco, but eventually, I think this compensatory advantage is lost from - for the harmful pitches which are contained in tobacco.

Myth of the eighth. At all who smokes, there is a narrowing of vessels of extremities, and legs will cut off then.

First, it if to smoke much. It is more than a pack much in day.

In - the second, James Dzhang (according to Reuters agency) investigating useful properties of nicotine started studying of impact of nicotine on blood system of the person still being a student of Oxford, received results the breaking traditional ideas of nicotine.

Prior to Dzhang`s experiments believed that violations of blood circulation and a suzhennost of veins at smokers are connected only with the nicotine use, however results of experiences of Dzhanga showed that nicotine, on the contrary, stimulates blood circulation.

to check the guess, researchers began a series of experiments on studying of impact of nicotine on laboratory mice. They used mice, suffering from cancer lungs and suffering from the broken blood circulation. Experimenters found out that nicotine stimulated restoration of blood vessels and in general made active mice. There was a feeling that after reception of nicotine of a mouse experienced energy inflow.

Professor Cook believes that nicotine can be used for healing of wounds and treatment of the diseases connected with violation of blood circulation and diabetes. Now scientists find out whether nicotine can help people with neurologic frustration, such as Parkinson`s illness and Tourett`s syndrome. Together with a tobacco smoke the smoker inhales a set of useful substances and oxygen, including the main component - nicotine which plays a role of a natural antibiotic. It destroys bacteria in a mouth, a throat and lungs - more than 36 types of pathogenic microorganisms. It is noticed that smokers have practically no herpes of lips and persons.

Myth of the eighth. Talk that smoking promotes weight reduction, the fairy tales which are thought up by smokers.

of Research speak - thanks to activization of a fatty exchange nicotine is an effective remedy of normalization of body weight. At the people who are regularly engaged in smoking, body weight is close to ideal, and the content of fat is 1,5 times less, than at non-smoking. As showed researches, the dosed physical activity allows to normalize body weight not only due to change of a metabolism, but also as a result of oppression of feeling of hunger (at allocation in blood of endorphins). At the same time decrease in body weight by increase in power consumption (by means of physical exercises) is less physiologic.

according to committee of WHO experts (1984), loss 3 - - 4 kg of body weight under the influence of physical training contributes to more expressed and stable normalization of a cholesteric exchange, than as a result of change of a diet. If to consider that for 1 h slow run with a speed of 9 - 11 km/h twice more energy is spent, than during walking (600 against 300 kcal), then it is obvious what by means of smoking of similar effect can be reached much quicker. In case of the expressed obesity the combination of both methods - trainings on endurance and smoking is the most effective. I cannot but tell that, since 70 years, nicotine as additives to a diet was used in animal husbandry for reduction of a fatty layer at pork. I ask to excuse if who has involuntary associations. Only facts no more than that.

Myth the ninth. From - for those who smoke passive smokers suffer more.

So here - within 15 years, chemists of the Texas university, not just made experiment to understand, how harmfully passive smoking, but literally on atoms counted what quantity of a tobacco smoke passive smokers receive. Basic data for calculation - 6 continuously smoking people, in the 6th sq.m, and one non-smoking with them. And so, to receive that amount of substance which is received by the smoker from one cigarette it is necessary to the passive smoker there are in the smoked room not less than 100 (hundred!) hours. I think a question it is settled If you read

WHO research (World Health Organization) about harm of smoking careful, then will see - that they rely on only serious research on this subject which was made 1928 in America, on supervision over prisoners of uranium mines. Statistically, which was conducted there, the smoking prisoners died not smokers earlier.

If began to speak about statistics - in families where the woman the passive smoker, duration of her life, is 2 years less usual (data on the USA). But in Japan 6 years bigger in comparison with passively not smokers, in Ireland is 3 years more. It is obvious that not everything is so simple and unambiguous with smoking as it seems at first sight to

At passive smokers, of course, there is still an argument - a pier if I am in the room with smokers, then my clothes smell then of a cigarette smoke. And I have, for example, an intolerance of smells of many French perfume so now, me to demand their ban? I cannot but tell

A about the historical background about advantage of smoking now. - x doctor Hans Juergen Eisenk (better known to us as the inventor of the IQ test) wrote to

in the middle of 70 article where proved that smoking is absolutely harmless for health and does not provoke developments of cancer (oncologists, just then as it seemed to them, proved this fatal communication, ceased to greet it). Smoking and lung cancer, - Eisenk wrote, - at the same time are symptoms of the same frustration of the personality, perhaps, a genetic origin . Having seen such rough reaction - pleasure of smokers, fury of doctors, bewilderment of housewives - and having felt surge in public interest in oncology, Eisenk wrote one more article which was immediately translated to a set of languages and is reprinted even by glossy magazines. Have cancer not from cigarettes and not from bad life, put absolutely in another. The type of the personality inclined to a disease of cancer is characterized by inability to express emotions, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and depression, and also the wrong reaction to a stress. The type of the personality inclined to a disease of coronary vessels of heart is in most cases characterized by rage, aggression and hostility . To discussions and criticism there was no end. It is interesting to you who recovers more often? - Eisenk asked a rhetorical question in the following article. - The answer is very simple. Patients who want to battle against an illness recover much more often, than those which behave passively. Surprisingly, but these rowdies bringing the doctors to white heat these fussy psychopaths survive considerably more often than people with decent behavior. Nice people die much more often .

it returned To the same subject already in 90 - e years, having published results of the four years` research financed by the American tobacco king Reynolds who supported dispute on harm of smoking and a role of the personality in the history of the illness. Research confirmed Eisenk`s hypotheses. The scientific world did not make its conclusions, having declared that it is a juggling of the facts. Then Eisenk suggested to put experiment on himself: I do not know what is rage, a depression or fear, here and draw conclusions about my predispositions . When it was tested by means of electrodes, it became clear that he is quiet as the dead man. Reactions are absolutely zero. Decided even that the equipment is faulty. So, having completely confirmed the hypothesis of an origin of diseases, Hans Juergen Eisenk died - on September 4, 1997 at the age of 81 year.

I in the conclusion the small digest without my comments - is known that smoking negatively influences a condition of immune system, suppressing T - lymphocytes and reaction of antibodies. Susceptibility to infectious diseases is a consequence of an immunosuppression (though also defects in immune system are not excluded). In some researches positive impact of tobacco smoking (including smokeless cigarettes) on aftozny ulcer stomatitis is noted. There were even publications that the course of a disease worsened after the termination of smoking and the condition of patients improved after smoking renewal. Believe that nicotine promotes a keratinization (the similar effect is gained from chewing gum with nicotine).

In one research was reported that herpes (herpes labialis) occurs among smokers less often. There is a set of messages on similar influence of tobacco on the course of ulcer colitis (at the former smokers ulcer colitis, on the contrary, will proceed heavier). Similar messages stimulated studying of effect of transdermalny nicotine. The effect of nicotine reminded action of corticosteroids. Nicotine is very effective in the period of an aggravation, and at a stage there is practically no remission. However it is obvious that nicotine helps with treatment of ulcer colitis; possible mechanisms - changes in mucous intestines, an immunosuppression, impact on prostaglandins, etc.

a Number of researchers note positive influence of tobacco smoking on a condition of patients with an allergic alveolit ( farmer`s lung and lung of the pigeon fancier ) decrease in level of serumal antibodies was registered. This effect can be reversible as the level of antibodies at the former smokers is intermediate between that at smokers and never smoking. It was noticed that such allergic diseases as hay fever, and in general skin reactions on " occur among smokers less often; seasonal anti-genes when testing at smokers are less expressed, however reactions to professional anti-genes are strengthened.

However remains not clear whether smoking suppresses immune reactions to an anti-gene, or patients with an allergy are not able to afford to smoke in state gravity at all. There are inconsistent data on decrease in incidence sarkoidozy among smokers, however nevertheless positive influence on population of lymphocytes is noted.

Is data that at smokers skin acne rash looks not so brightly that is attributed to oppression of inflammatory processes.

Metabolic effect. It is well known that smoking promotes reduction of body weight, the difference increases with age and is more expressed among moderate smokers. The termination of smoking is followed by increase in body weight, this reason also prevents much to refuse an addiction.

This effect does not speak completely the theory about decrease in needs for the number of calories, the increased physical activity; assume that at smokers exchange processes accelerate; this effect is attributed to nicotine though also the behavioural component is not excluded.

Central nervous system. In a brain there is a large number of nicotinic holinergichesky receptors. The chronic use of nicotine even more increases their quantity; stimulating these receptors, nicotine promotes release of a series of neurotransmitters, participating, thus, in performance of a number of important functions.

is Accurately established beneficial influence of nicotine on a course of disease of Parkinson. The risk of developing of an illness of Parkinson at smokers decreases twice; this information is obtained as a result of kogortny researches, the analysis of clinical records and mortality. By the way, it is not excluded that at subjects with high predisposition to Parkinson`s illness disgust for smoking can be observed. In experiment on animals positive influence of a tobacco smoke on the course of parkinsonism is proved.

based on results of research of some clinical records and formal research (a double blind method), the patient with parkinsonism suggested to appoint nicotine as a remedy. Smoking positively influences the current of some other the diseases affecting extrapyramidal system: medicinal parkinsonism, Tourrete syndrome; all this indicates influence of nicotine on the dopaminergic

systems there are data on positive influence of nicotine on a course of disease of Alzheimer. It is not simple to it to receive epidemiological confirmation as it is hard to differentiate Alzheimer`s disease and other types of dementias. But when carrying out short courses of treatment nicotine recorded noticeable improvement of cerebration at people with Alzheimer`s disease.

Smoking can positively influence cerebration at healthy people that is shown by revival, the best information processing, acceleration of some motor reactions and, maybe, memory improvement. Influence of tobacco on non-smoking is studied badly as all researches were conducted with participation of smokers at whom the increased tolerance to a tobacco smoke takes place and receptors are changed. The results received at supervision of the patients who were not stopping smoking too can be distorted. Nevertheless there are accurate data that nicotine increases intellectual working capacity and accelerates information processing at non-smoking. Baron JA. Benefical effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: Real, possible and spurious. British Medical Bulletin, 1996:52:58 - 73.

Epilogue: I know one place in Albany, probably, this last such place in America where you can come, sit in a good easy chair, having put legs on a coffee table. To read a magazine, to smoke a cigarette (the open pack lies on a table) or a cigar, to breathe a smell of weighed out tobacco, it will be thrown by a two-three of phrases with the old seller who the last sixty years of the life smokes only a pipe and nothing, did not die yet. Generally, to come, to smoke, have a rest, take a look at the idiots running behind a window in search of tablets - antidepressants and to leave in order that in a month to return when the next attack of a neurasthenia rises to a throat. Old, kind, tobacco shop with a wooden statue of the Indian near an entrance. To smoke it is necessary to be able. And to draw conclusions on the basis of own experience which includes the daily use of two packs Belomora and without knowing at all that such smoking, at least is silly .

As you can see, not everything is so unambiguous with nousmoking . It is necessary to add banal: the person - a measure of all things. Generally, if you smoke - you smoke good tobacco if you do not smoke - do not prevent to smoke that who smokes good tobacco.

I finally - the recipe of longevity from Churchill: Five - six cigars a day, three - four glasses of whisky. And any physical culture!

Doctor of psychology Valery Rozanov.

History of tobacco and tobacco smoking.

6000th year BC. According to the experts the tobacco bush was completely created and took a present form.

the 1st century BC. American natives begin to use tobacco (including for smoking) in everyday life.

the 1st century AD. Tobacco grows already in all territory of America.

600 - 1000 year of N. E. UAKSAKTU

First graphic representation of the smoker. The clay vessel is found, and on it Indian Maiya smoking the curtailed tobacco leaves drawn by a thread is represented. Indians Maiya called smoking sik`ar. 1492 Columbus meet by

the first smokers.

tobacco was offered on October 15, 1492 to Christopher Columbus by the American Indians as a gift.

1497 Robert Paine, Columbus`s companion on the second travel of 1493, writes the first report on tobacco and its use.

1518 MEXICO JUAN DE GRIALVA, being on Yucatan, sees the locals smoking tobacco.

1519 MEXICO CORTEZ wins the capital of Aztecs and meets people of smokers prototypes of our cigarettes there.

1530 MEXICO BERNARDINO DE SAKHAGOUN, the Mexican missionary, does distinction between sweet Nicotiana tabacum tobacco and rough Nicotiana rustica.

of 1531 SANTO - DOMINGO Nachinaetsya the European cultivation of tobacco.

1534 CUBA, SANTO - DOMINGO Sladcy, broad-leaved Nicotiana tabacum is transported from the continent to Cuba and Santo - Domingo.

1548 BRAZIL Portuguese grow up tobacco for commercial export.

1554 ANTWERP Cruydeboeck represents the first illustrations of tobacco. CANADA Jacques Cartier meets by

1555 the smoking natives on the island Montreal.

1556 FRANCE

First emergence of tobacco. Andree Tevet brings Nicotiana tabacum from Brazil, claiming that tobacco is created for comfortable forwarding time.

1558 PORTUGAL First emergence of tobacco.

1559 SPAIN First emergence of tobacco.

1560 PORTUGAL, FRANCE

of Jeanne of Nicko de Villemeyn, the French ambassador in Portugal, writes medical mission of tobacco, describing it as panacea. Nicko sends Nicotiana rustica to the French yard.

1564 - 1565 ENGLAND

Tobacco appears in England thanks to sir John Houkins and his crew. In the next 20 years tobacco is used only by seamen.

1566 FRANCE

of Jeanne Villemeyn sends snuff tobacco as a gift to Ekaterina Medici, the queen of France, to the help from her headaches. But in a consequence it changes tobacco for Herba Regina.

1568 FRANCE

of Andree Tevet provides the first description of use of tobacco.

1570 Appears the first botanical book devoted to tobacco, published in London.

1571 SPAIN

MEDICINE: The doctor from Seville Monard writes about general interest in cultivation of tobacco among the Spanish doctors. Also it provides the list from 36 diseases of which cures tobacco.

1577 ENGLAND

MEDICINE: Frempton translates into doctor Monard`s English. The European doctors find new application for tobacco - it is applied from a toothache, by losses of nails, worms, a fetid odor from a mouth, at tetanus and cancer.

1586 ENGLAND

Tobacco rushes into the English society. In July, 1586 colonists from Virzhiniya`s staff come back to England and land in Plymouth. Many of them descending on the coast, smoking a pipe.

1587 ANTWERP

is For the first time published the book, entirely, devoted to " tobacco; De herbe panacea with a set of recipes of healing

1603 ENGLAND

Doctors express the concern that tobacco is used without medical instructions. They complain to the king James I. ENGLAND

Edmond Gardiner publishes

1610 Tests of tobacco of William Barclay where the mass of recipes of medical use of tobacco is given. Barclay defends uses of tobacco in the medical purposes, but condemns him daily use.

1624 Church begins to separate the people smelling tobacco, according to Holy Fathers sneezing too resembles sexual ecstasy.

1634 EUROPE

the Greek church makes the decision that tobacco smoking is guilty of death of Nov and, respectively, forbids tobacco. FRANCE

the King allows

1635 tobacco sale only according to instructions of doctors.

1665 EUROPE

GREAT PLAGUE: It is considered that tobacco protects from plague.

ENGLAND

call the Wife of the king George III Snuffy Charlotte what it is possible to translate as Charlotte smelling " tobacco;.

FRANCE

Napoleon spent about 3 in a month. 2 kg of snuff tobacco. RUSSIA

Peter the Great himself smoked

1700 and therefore he cancelled all persecutions on tobacco. the Pope Benedict of XIII tries to smoke

1724 and cancels all punishments for tobacco smoking.

1914 OPINION

In the letter Thomas Edison writes Henry Ford that the main danger of cigarettes in brown paper which when burning emits arsenic. It strongly influences the nervous centers, kills cells of a brain. I do not employ smokers . the American Medical Association supports by

1964 a protest of the tobacco industry against drawing on packs of cigarettes of the medical prevention.

1988 COURT

Court in Roza Chipollone`s claim exposes the classified report of the Research Center of the " company; Philip Morris in Richmond, Virzhiniya`s staff. Here excerpts from this report:

- cigarettes have to be considered not as a product, and as packing.

- a product is nicotine.

- a cigarette is a single packing of nicotine.

- smoking - an optimum way of consumption of nicotine.

- cigarettes - the optimum doser of nicotine.

Doctor of psychology Valery Rozanov.

Literature:

Eating Behaviors November 2006 Vol. 7(4)

February (2002) issue of the magazine Neurology (Neurology).

of Baron JA. Benefical effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: Real, possible and spurious. British Medical Bulletin, 1996:52:58 - 73.

Russian medical magazine 2006 - 2009.

Maria Golovanivskaya, Elena Vansovich, " weekly; The Kommersant - Money N 37, 1999.