“ Good work “ or “ non-standard employment “?
Now many build forecasts about when crisis ends, dismissals will stop, and all will have a good work again! And how the situation actually is?
Those years when I worked in recruitment agency, I heard every day one and too: “ I Want to find good work in the stable company “ . In response to it I asked: and whether you in our city know at least one such company? Someone came back to Earth after that. Another to refuse a stereotype “ good work “ it was much more difficult. Why?
“ Good work “ - from where this stereotype undertook?
All of us it is from the childhood, and or at ourselves it fell on post-war years, or at our parents who brought up us. Thus, our representation about “ to good work “ it was created somewhere at that time which economists call “ nice 25 - the anniversary “. It is 1949 - 1973 when high rates of GDP created conditions for steady growth of employment .
As a result by the end 70 - x years in industrialized countries rates of economic growth were rather high and steady, inflation - low-notable, budgets - balanced, and employment - “ full “ and at the same time thoroughly protected by collective agreements and the labor legislation. Dream and only!
“ Nice “ labor market
Stereotype “ good work “ it developed in this “ nice “ period. Labor market was just faultless. That the working person had then:
of a guarantee “ full “ employment and well debugged system of social insurance;
the stable income - vigilantly watched it influential labor unions;
stability of employment - dismissal was regulated by strict rules with a guarantee of considerable payments;
constancy of content of work and official requirements - was defined by a rigid framework of classifications of work and system of tariffing;
safety of work - was provided to with strict observance of rules of labor protection.
“ Nice 25 - the anniversary “ was time of a celebration of model “ the full standardized employment “ not around the world, of course, but in the developed countries and the countries of the developed socialism - it is unambiguous.
Oil shock and new model of employment
From the middle 70 - x a situation sharply changed. Two energy crises 70 - x years, oil " played the ominous role ; shock “ from which caused cardinal changes in economy and, respectively, change in labor market.
Tell what unites the pensioner trading in home-made pies and the freelancer, the private lawyer and the distributor of network marketing, the individual entrepreneur and the tutor on USE, the disabled person - the home-worker and every fifth employee of IBM corporation?
All of them work according to the modern " model; the individualized, non-standard employment “.
Non-standard employment takes place when there is at least no one of five components characteristic of the concept “ standard employment “:
1) work at one employer;
2) a workplace in the room and with the instruments of labor belonging to the employer;
3) standard working loading during the day, weeks, month, year;
4) termless labor contract;
5) protection from the state labor legislation and labor unions.
In other words, non-standard forms of employment is a part-time and temporary employment on hiring, distant work, independent employment, including “ shadow “.
Formation of this model and the labor market corresponding to it began in 80 - 90 - e years in the conditions of sharp delay of growth rates of GDP, an aggravation of an imbalance of supply and demand of labor, sharp increase in unemployment.
Russia - we go “ stranger “ in the way?
, As far as this phenomenon it is widespread? By some estimates, in the sphere of the individualized forms of employment there are from 30 to 50% of labor of the countries of Western Europe and Japan and about 20 - 30% of labor of Canada and the USA .
After economically developed countries the new model of employment came to the countries of Eastern Europe - together with “ velvet “ revolutions. Russia came to the market after all and now with some lag repeats a way of development of these countries.
Many consider that non-standard forms of employment, and especially “ shadow “ employment which was estimated by in Russia in 90 - x at 40 - 45%, are temporary costs of a transition period. People hoped that life will be adjusted and everything will pass. But it not so.
Moreover, in 1995 the International Labour Organization suggested to remove the barriers interfering non-standard forms of employment , and many developed countries took measures for stimulation of a wide circulation of these forms. Why?
In the conditions of the growing unemployment at the expense of non-standard forms of employment goes to 90% of employment.
What from this follows?by
As it was sung in the movie “ Moscow does not trust tears “ “ it is necessary to live “ but already without illusions that an era “ the full standardized employment “ will return.
One my acquaintance, the lawyer by training, makes lunches for the Japanese tourists at home now - they fear our public catering like the plague. Another - stays at home with the child and at the same time looks after neighbour`s. Someone earns additionally private carrying. Programmers - those to you and Windows on new “ will fill in “ and from viruses your personal computer will be cleaned, and will establish everything that you will wish. Well, at whom with the head and hands everything is all right - those and now at business: “ any whim for your money! “
Someone is retrained on various courses or it is even better - directly therein as the higher education - it is expensive, long and often very far from real life. And with USE introduction it is also inaccessible for many. Now the one who studies quicker to what is demanded by constantly changing market survives.
What I want to tell?
Of course, classical “ good work “ will be always. But its share will be steadily reduced that now and occurs.
I will give an example: in the opinion poll which is carried out in Russia at the end of 2007, nearly 44% of participants declared that they want to work in “ Gazprom “ - the stablest Russian company. And recently this “ favourite of public “ declared reduction of 10% of managers - them “ dreams do not come true " any more;!
Now for many “ good work “ - it is work where well pay . The truth often at the same time it is necessary to forget about the labor law, i.e. fixed working hours, normal holiday, sick-lists that “ the chief is not right “ and “ it does not belong to my duties “ and it also is “ non-standard employment “! we Will sum up of
the results. Non-standard employment is not a temporary phenomenon . It seriously and for a long time. Even when crisis will end, the " model; the individualized non-standard employment “ will remain with us because only it corresponds to our quickly changing world.