When there was a spoon?
Unless we can do without such necessary and practical subject how a spoon now? But which of you reflected when this device appeared?
So, for five thousand years BC in Egypt already used spoons from a tree and a stone what excavation testifies to. In Greece since the most ancient times enjoyed popularity a certain similarity of a spoon - a cockleshell to which it was convenient “ to get “ food. During blossoming of the Roman and Greek civilizations the bronze and silver ware appeared. Many copies of bronze and silver spoons of this period which are stored in the historical museums worldwide remained.
In Europe the spoon appeared in the Middle Ages. Then spoons were generally wooden and horn. In the 15th century gained popularity of a spoon from brass and copper. Aristocrats and kings used spoons from silver and gold. The earliest mention of such spoons belongs to 1259. In 1300 the gold and silver spoons marked by fleur - de - lis (the name of the Parisian workshop) were among personal belongings of the English king Edward I. In Renaissance so-called apostolic spoons with the image of Christ and his pupils who often gave for Christian holidays were widespread in Europe. On apostolic spoons Christ`s pupils were represented.
When the spoon reached Russia - mothers? During Alexey Mikhaylovich`s reign boyars had a tin tableware. Of course, all knew about existence of tableware, but these attributes were perceived only as luxury therefore spoons, forks and knives moved only to the dear guests. Even Ivan the Terrible at the table had neither a personal plate, nor a spoon, and “ used them from the boyar sitting beside it “. Therefore a smart feast with “ overseas " caviar; and the table abounding with ware in the movie “ Ivan Vasilyevich changes a profession “ - director`s invention inappropriate to a spirit of the age.
At Peter I almost at all grandees the ware was silver. At court Catherine I often and gold. On one of holidays the column of Sheremetyevo in Kuskovo the table was served on 60 persons by exclusively gold ware. In the middle of a table there was a horn of plenty from pure gold decorated with the empress`s monogram from large diamonds.
The wooden spoon as a subject of use is mentioned even in the chronicle “ Story of temporary years “. So that`s that!
The spoon form constantly changed until in 1760 became oval and convenient in the use. Now make a huge number of various spoons - different flowers, the sizes, forms, of various materials. But it is worth paying special attention to a wooden decorative spoon with the list which appeared in the 17th century and received the name in the place of emergence of this art form - Khokhloma. Red juicy berries of a mountain ash and wild strawberry, flowers and branches, birds, fishes and animals... Traditional colors: black (sometimes green) and red on a golden background. Of course, the Khokhloma list became not only on spoons, but also on other ware which became a symbol of Russia, as well as a nested doll. Such spoons were often used and as musical instruments. I do not know whether the saying that necessity is the mother of invention, but the fact remains is usable here.
The explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language of Vladimir Dahl says that “ the spoon happens: mezheumok, simple Russian, wide; Butyrka, burlatsky, same, but is thicker and more rough; bosky, dolgovaty, square-tipped; polubosky, pokrugly that; big-nosed, sharp-nosed; thin, in general fine, pure finish. White, i.e. not colored, first-hand there are 9 - 18 rub of bank notes one thousand, aspen and birch; maple one thousand, colored to 75 rub of bank notes. Spoons, at songbooks, buffoons of a kastanyetka, steam of wooden spoons, or put on fingers of the circles covered with gremushka “.
On spoons also guessed. For example, in a tub with water put spoons on number of relatives, having noticed which - whose. Then shook up water. Looked in the morning: if all spoons in a heap, so within a year all remain in a family; if someone`s lagged behind, so this family member this year will leave it (will marry, marries, will move or will die etc.) . As a ritual subject the Russian peasants used a spoon during Christmas fortune-telling - froze by New year water in a spoon: bubbles - to long life; a pole from above - to death “.
And here guessing which was thought up, in my opinion, by our contemporaries. To take 10 - 20 tablespoons, to tie up colourful ribbons, having made bows with knot and without knot that when unbinding turned out one tied, and others - untied. Guessing: to make wishes the next year and to choose on a spoon, to untie a ribbon. If with knot a spoon, then the desire next year is not granted yet and if without knot, then everything comes true!
Spoon signs are not less interesting to .
If to drop a spoon - the woman will come if a knife - the man.
Two spoons in one sauce-boat - to a wedding. the Spoon on a table after a lunch to forget
- to the guest.
to Spill sauce from a sousny spoon - to predict family quarrel.
It is impossible to knock spoons - from it “ the evil rejoices “ also are called together for lunch “ wicked creatures “.
Cannot leave a spoon so that it leaned the handle on a table, and other end on a bowl: on a spoon as on the bridge, the evil spirit can get into a bowl.
The Scottish nurses always noticed what hand the child for the first time undertook a spoon. Was considered that if he makes it the left hand, he will lose good luck on for the rest of the life. This superstition was written down by the master Wilkie: “ The Spoon played a noticeable role in ceremonies of east Slavs, representing the specific family member - live or died... Spoons marked, avoided to use strangers, and the spoon of the man was sometimes opposed to the rest by the sizes and a form; it was applied willingly in traditional medicine, believing that by means of a spoon of the died owner it is possible to get rid of a birthmark, a wart, abscess, a tumor in a throat, etc. “ in the context of idea that a spoon metaphorically “ replaces “ the owner, there is clear a sense of the English belief about two spoons in a sauce-boat - they represent a young couple. (Cf. “ the spoon forgotten on a table - to the guest “) .
At courtship if someone from asking in marriage manages to carry away a spoon from the house of the bride, then the son will be an owner in the house and his wife will never leave. After three months after their wedding the spoon needs to be thrown to the house to the bride.
As preserved a spoon used during the child`s baptism when the godmother was a pregnant woman. This tradition is live still - during a baptism the kid is given a silver spoon, having at all forgotten about such attribute as pregnancy.
And finally, several of proverbs about spoons .
The spoon with a pokhlebochka, but not dry is red. (Russian)
there would be a world pilaf, and I - a spoon! (Dargwa)
you will not push Into one mouth of two spoons. (Chinese)
One does not sharpen the axes after the time they are needed. (Russian)
of Kashi is not enough, but a spoon big. (Malayan)
to Cats on spoons, dogs on crumbs, us on flat cakes. (Russian)
Fly in the ointment. (Russian)
Not of luggage the spoon there where your bowl is absent. (Abkhazian)
the Empty spoon of a lip scratches. (Ossetian)
Nothing to sup, so give though a spoon to lick. (Russian)
best of all knows the Condition of a copper a ladle. (Lak)
That you will put in a copper, will get to a spoon. (Kazakh)
Is red a spoon the eater, a horse the goer. (Russian)
That to yourself in a bowl you will crumble, and at yourself you will find in a spoon (Armenian)
Hands behind a spoon you will not give, so will not come. whether (Russian)
now we So can do without spoon?! It is unlikely... It is good both on a table, and in guessing, and in musical sounding. And in general, we should learn to notice fine in use.