The least birds - what they?
Among a great number of representatives of birds of our planet are especially interesting group, it is the tiniest of the birds existing on the globe - a humming-bird, a real miracle of the nature! Let`s get acquainted closer with this baby.
On average adult humming-birds weigh only 1,6 - 1,8 grams, their length - 6 centimeters, at the same time a half of length of a body is made by a tail and a beak. However, birds of this look are also larger size: for example, a huge humming-bird whose length - 20 cm
the Plumage at a humming-bird can be all flowers of a rainbow it is frequent with metal gloss. Color of birds depends on reflection of light feathers. Therefore the coloring of the same bird, depending on lighting, looks variously.
Humming-birds can fly both the head forward, and a tail, are capable to hang in air, to fly up and fall vertically. Instantly reach the maximum speed and also instantly land. Wings at a humming-bird not really long. The tail has the various form and length. It can be short or long, and is sometimes similar to the opened scissors. Legs at a humming-bird tetradactyl, but very weak therefore these birds cannot go on the ground.
The muscles operating the movements of wings are very strongly developed. The movement of a wing during flight is peculiar and all the matter is that the humeral bone does not rise and falls as at other birds, and rotates round its pivot-center, and the wing tip at the same time describes the eight. Wings of a humming-bird move very quickly, and the less bird, the more waves it does by wings. For example, the two-gram red humming-bird to hold on in air, in a second does 50 waves by wings, and during the marriage period - 100. The movements of wings of these birds cannot be distinguished with the naked eye.
Extremely developed heart is tied with big mobility of these birds and a fast metabolism in their organism. On volume it almost three times more stomach and at the same time occupies a half of a cavity of a body. Frequency of reductions of heart at a humming-bird - one thousand times a minute. Body temperature is very unstable. Warm-blooded humming-birds only when fly, do they it throughout the day. When darkens, the bird sits down on a branch, and at the same time body temperature at it sharply goes down to 17 degrees. The humming-bird falls into catalepsy and can be in such state till 20 o`clock.
These little birdies eat much, per day they absorb forages twice bigger, than weigh. So they maintain the constant body temperature and a fast metabolism. In the menu at these birds both vegetable (nectar of flowers), and animal (insects and spiders) food. The beak at a humming-bird long and thin, reminds a needle, sometimes it surpasses all length of a bird (the head, a neck and a trunk) in length. Usually the straight line beak, but sometimes is a little bent down. Language of a humming-bird represents a long and thin tubule with bakhromky on the end.
How the bird extracts nectar? Having flown up to a flower, she fades in air and enters a beak into a flower then puts out the end of language which was put by a tubule before. Nectar is pumped up in an oral cavity by means of glotatelny movements and after a gullet comes to a duodenum, passing a stomach. And here spiders and small insects whom the humming-bird eats get into a stomach. The humming-bird drinks up nectar with a speed of 12 times a second! It needs to eat each 10 minutes. At the smallest bird the highest metabolic rate among all vertebrate animals on the planet.
Build nests and bring up baby birds only of a female. They construct nests on branches of trees, palm sheets, on ledges of rocks, in the vegetation which is hanging down over water, in lianas. The smallest nest of a humming-bird has the size of a half of a walnut, often nests very deep, lean out of them only a beak and a tail of a birdie. Eggs at a humming-bird very small, the smallest - 2 mg. In 14 days from egg the naked and blind tiny being appears. While mother gets food for the kid, he loses heat and falls into catalepsy. But the arrived mother bothers it and restores to life.
There are 320 species of a humming-bird. Very seldom in the nature the humming-bird - Sapfo, the head of this birdie brilliant green meets, the back violet, and a red tail reminds a comet trace. In the mountain valley of Peru there lives one of the smallest species of a humming-bird - a raketokhvosty humming-bird. It is known only for several copies. Exclusively bright coloring at a humming-bird - an angel. The scarlet throat with a blue collar passes into a brilliant blue bottom with a green tail.
Humming-birds live only in the western hemisphere. But most widely they are widespread in South America. Some species of these little birds live only at top of one mountain because there plants which form of flowers corresponds to a beak of these humming-birds grow. Hunt a humming-bird for the sake of their wonderful plumage, millions of these little birds were exterminated.