Whether the wife of two Decembrists Natalia Fonvizina - Pushchina Tatyana Larina`s prototype was?
Pushkin`s Creativity, apparently, are investigated up and down, but white spots and in is mute is enough. One of them - Tatyana Larina`s prototype. The poet confined to one phrase:
“ And that with which the lovely ideal is formed by Tatyana`s
O is a lot of, the fate otjyal is a lot of! “
Contemporaries of the poet considered that separate lines of the heroine it “ borrowed “ at Natalia Fonvizina, at which and actually “ the fate otjyal " is a lot of;. It was most strictly forbidden to mention names of the state criminals and their wives who followed them to Siberia. Perhaps, from - for it Pushkin also confined to the strange phrase about otjyavshy fate.
Natalia Dmitriyevna was a woman surprising. Vasily Zhukovsky, Alexander Odoevsky, Sergey Durov devoted it verses. Lev Tolstoy was going to make her the main character of the novel “ Decembrists “. It with appreciation was remembered by Fyodor Dostoyevsky whom she visited in transit prison, and then many years supported in letters. Her house in Siberia where she would not move after the husband, at once became the center of gravity for many people.
The destiny future decembrist began quite usually, nothing foretold that whirlpool of events in which center it soon will appear. Natalia was born in a family of the leader of the Kostroma nobility Dmitry Apukhtin in the entail property Otradnoye stretched on the bank of the quiet rivulet of Unzhi. The girl since the childhood was lovely, all went to the fact that in youth she will turn into the real beauty. Even Zhukovsky wrote to the eight-year-old seductress to an album:
“ There Will pass five years and ten days,
You will be fear of hearts and looks admiration! “
the venerable poet as soon as to the girl it was executed sixteen was not mistaken, offers of a hand and heart from offsprings of neighbour`s landowners literally fell down. But in marriage Natalia did not hurry and refused to all, parents, sighing, agreed with opinion of the daughter. Soon to Apukhtin the young official staying with neighbors from Moscow whose courtings and clever talk Natalia met with escalating interest began to come around. It seemed, business goes to a wedding. A plot almost like in “ Eugene Onegin “ only without duel. Suddenly young man was gone, it appeared, he inquired about a manor and a condition of Apukhtin who was at this time on the verge of ruin.
Natalia took hard sudden departure of the person whom she practically considered the groom. She became devout, spent time in prayers and even tried to go to the monastery, having run away for this purpose from the house. In search of the girl many neighbors participated. Intercepted it already on approaches to the monastery, almost in 90 kilometers from a manor, and somehow persuaded to come back home.
And soon the glorified general Mikhail Fonvizin who arrived for the sake of it to a manor in the ceremonial uniform decorated with fighting awards wooed Natalia. However, he saw Natasha not on a ball in Nobility assemly as future spouse of Larina, and knew since the childhood as he was a relative of her mother. History of unsuccessful love and escape to the monastery of the darling therefore he did not insist on the immediate answer was known to it.
Natalia agreed only in several months. Actually, about love the speech then did not go. Later she remembered those events: “ Here I also in marriage agreed to leave more because father a large sum owed Mikhail Aleksandrovich`s mother and a wedding the debt itself kvitatsya because I one daughter was also one successor “. It is necessarily remembered by “ but I am given another and a century I will be faithful to it “.
In September, 1822 celebrated a wedding. Young people lodged in a manor of the husband situated near Moscow, but did not avoid also a social life, willingly went to neighbors and to Moscow where at Fonvizina there was a big mansion. Everything was practically as at Pushkin:
“ But here the crowd began to hesitate,
After the hall ran grumble...
the lady approached the hostess,
Behind it the important general “. Soon in a family the firstborn named by Dmitry was born
. It seemed, ahead of them happy and quiet life waits. Everything changed in December, 1825 when Fonvizin was arrested. Despite pregnancy, Natalia rushed behind it to St. Petersburg. She even managed to achieve appointment to the spouse. Prospects were sad though in society and considered that they thanks to merits of the general will pardon, at worst - will banish to the Caucasus.
The judgment caused shock - condemnation according to the third category, exile to unbearable work for 15 years, and then on the eternal settlement. However, the emperor who promised to surprise “ Europe the mercy “ reduced penal servitude till 12 years. And actually “ surprised “ - transferred from the third category in the fourth. By this time at Natalia the son named in honor of the father by Mikhail whom it was not fated to see Fonvizina any more was born.
After the husband Natalia went to Siberia. It was waited by life severe, full of deprivations, but she was never sorry about the decision. In Siberia at it two more sons who died in infancy were born. In 1832 to Mikhail Fonvizin under amnesty allowed to come to the settlement, having defined at first to Yeniseisk, then to Krasnoyarsk, and since 1838 to Tobolsk which was considered at that time as the capital of Siberia. In Tobolsk in transit prison Natalia met Dostoyevsky and petrashevets from whom learned, as her eldest son who died by then of a consumption was a member of their organization. Soon news and of death of the son Mikhail came.
From close relatives at a couple Fonvizin there was only Ivan, Mikhail Aleksandrovich`s brother. He that also obtained to the elder brother in 1853 amnesty and the right of homecoming. But they are not fated to meet any more, Ivan died literally some days before Mikhail`s return from Siberia.
Fonvizin lodged in the manor of Maryino situated near Moscow (nowadays in the territory of the city of Bronnitsy) which got in inheritance from Ivan. Unfortunately, on freedom to Mikhail Aleksandrovich it was necessary to live only a year. After death of the husband in 1854, Natalia was engaged in affairs of the estate, significantly improved matters of peasants. But it was not possible to muffle melancholy. Expressly respect for it of local society even irritated, she for herself did not feel special merits. Uncontrollably pulled it to Siberia which became for many years native, exactly there lived all people close to it.
Natalia knew that she is loved long ago by Ivan Pushchin continuing to remain on the settlement in Siberia, and decided to leave to it. Understanding what will not get official permission to a trip, went secretly. Stopped in Tobolsk where many knew it and loved. Several times went to Pushchin to Yalutorovsk. Probably, during these meetings they also made the decision to cast in the lot. But at insistance of the authorities of Natalia it was necessary to leave Siberia. Practically after it there arrived also the amnestied Pushchin.
On May 22, 1857 the modest wedding took place. Lodged in a manor of Maryino where Pushchin began to work on memoirs. It “ Notes about friendly relations with A.S. Pushkin “ were published in 1859. In the same year Ivan Pushchin died. Natalia buried Pushchin near graves of the first husband and his brother. Natalia Dmitriyevna spent the last years of life in Moscow, confined to the bed by a serious illness. She died on October 10, 1869 and was buried on a cemetery of the Pokrovsk monastery.
Pushkin always watched closely destiny of Decembrists, with many of which he was connected by friendship. Well he knew and history of a marriage of Mikhail Fonvizina on Natalia Apukhtina. By the way, in the first draft " options; Eugene Onegin “ in the well-known line it is written: “ Her sister was called Natasha “. It appeared then a name of Tan which in noble families of that time practically did not meet.
In life usually all it is more difficult and more tragic, than in novels. At Natalia Fonvizina - Pushchina only the small piece of destiny partially coincides with destiny of the Pushkin heroine. Perhaps, it is usual accident. But also the probability that this woman with unusual destiny became Tatyana Larina`s prototype is high. Knowing Pushkin`s attitude towards Decembrists, personally I do not believe in accident.