Tomato or tomato? That our ancestors ate: small digression to literature and art of
Here it was always interesting to me what people ate when there was no potato and tomatoes? Because both appeared in Europe and in Russia rather recently. And now it is difficult to imagine everyday life without these useful plants.
In the market charming sketches are played:
- How much yours of tomato?
- That you look, the young woman, a yak won of a sokovit, and a glycyrrhiza - a yak of that a tsukor! on three.
- And to buy?...
- On 2. 50.
- For a kilogram or for all heap?.
Here we indignantly sweep aside remarks of purist who like to poskripet about the fact that tomato - the word of a masculine gender and needs to be spoken “ " tomatoes; etc. On grammar - that it of course so... But unless to compare cachectic, kislyavy ogorodno - hothouse northern tomato - with our portly, shchekasty, fiery steppe pomidory?
And began to smell? Real steppe tomato smells not of cellophane, and not the refrigerator - it smells of a tomato tops of vegetable, the sun and a steppe scope. And how many in their summer buy, for couple of days there is nothing. And if with a young kartoshechka and with onions - what there lobsters? No lobsters are necessary! And these yours... the land it is not necessary too. Also do not persuade. Also do not tempt me with the curly word “ barbekyuyuyuyuy “. Tomatoes with a kartoshechka, onions and sunflower oil are our everything. By the way, not refined - that smelled of sunflowers, but not polyethylene.
But we distracted. Yes, so all - they ate, poor creatures, so far seafarers did not bring from - for the ocean all this charm? Neither tomatoes, nor pepper, nor potato... Probably subsisted on one buckwheat?... We go to encyclopedias and informative resources (for example, Yu. Belopukhova`s book “ History of cultivation of tomatoes “) also we learn that:
In old times were engaged in garden vegetables in monasteries. Probably as education of especially charitable patience and obedience as wordly insufficiently aware were not accustomed to the peyzena to laborious jumping, a dive, weeding and other subtleties. Not incidentally extraordinary width of Slavic soul (unlike painstaking Chinese, for example) is explained with way of crops of local cereals. The Slav filled seed fund in a bast basket and went on the plowed field, generously scattering seeds and giving to drink to our melodious, wide songs. And rice, as we know, lands seedling, that is everyone boring of rice should be landed separately, having bent in a liquid bog, from here and the Chinese painstaking, meticulousness and six thousand hieroglyphs for each word separately. Therefore the Slavic peasant was not really eager to truck farming and provided it to women at whom already during that time was cares not to be gathered - to spin, weave, sew, erase, to bleach, pound, knead, roll out, to swing, and to pinch a splinter. Here not really you will disperse.
There were monasteries. Monks grew up turnip, peas, beans and beet. From the South, from the Greek colonies to Slavs the swede got. Who knows what is a swede - will tell at a leisure? And a turnip all of us know that according to the fairy tale, and the swede is covered with an uncertainty gloom. And the word still such sonorous, I would tell - proud, a bryuyuyuyukva, and sho there, I was not going to find out. Suddenly tasty? Or it disappeared together with monasteries and their kitchen gardens?
at the beginning of the X century appeared cabbage (we already spoke about cabbage) and yellow carrot. When the Moscow kingdom was formed, there were so-called imperial kitchen gardens supplying the imperial yard with vegetables: cultivated cabbage and greens, supplied the imperial yard with hothouse cucumbers and melons.
Peter I who personally was engaged resolutely in everything, penetrated into everything that he saw, sought to modernize everything that moves, and in many respects succeeded, - thoughtfully studied culture of cultivation of vegetables in Holland and specially directed to training to Holland several vegetable growers. We are also obliged by emergence of a garden radish to Peter I who delivered it from France and insisted on his cultivation. Why the radish was also called some time “ French radish “.
So what was eaten by the simple person at the end of the 18th century?
From vegetables known today grew in small country kitchen gardens: carrots, beet, turnip, cucumbers and sometimes headed, but are more “ gray “ (sheet) cabbage. In northern part of Russia the choice was even more modest: the cabbage, beet, carrots and onions were grown up “ places “ turnip and a radish grew only on fields near the woods, and also “ on the sand covered with " silt; beans, peas, a celery and parsley were successful “ not annually “. Gray field peas, field and garden beans grew in the Vologda province only on the left side of the Dvina River and that at the same time gave a thick peel and “ very small fruits “. In northern part of the province parted onions, potatoes, a radish and horse-radish. Other vegetables sowed only in places. The cabbage, here though ripened, but did not give seeds as did not give their turnip, a radish and a swede (behind seeds went to Yaroslavl). As we see
, in the majority of the nonchernozem regions of Russia turnip, a radish and cabbage were the leading cultures of country kitchen gardens first of all. They made a food basis “ Russian man of a midland of Russia “.
from sources I with surprise learned that originally the tomato (it is tomato, it berry broskvinny, it gold love apple, it is a red eggplant) was put as an ornamental plant in flowerpots and in a garden and appreciated beauty of florets and berries (that is actually a pomidorok) what berries were considered as poisonous! (For what gained the confidence “ mad " berries;? Victoria Bobyliova). Personally to me the tomato tops of vegetable though it it is also delightful smells, always seemed unsightly, but and potatoes were originally used as an ornamental plant and appreciated florets? The tendency interesting - and can after a while it will be found out that it is very possible to eat nartsissovy bulbs or to make gladioluses.
So, our favourite berries get divorced as food in general less than 200 years:
However, and in Europe tomatoes long time were only ornamental plants which parted only for the sake of bright magnificent greens and colourful fruits which were applied in the medicinal purposes. In the Dutch books of the 16th century about them it is mentioned as decoration of gardens of Antwerp, in France tomatoes landed around arbors, in England grew up in greenhouses, in tubs. Ill fame about this useful vegetable gave in very slowly. Even in the XVIII century the French gardeners claimed that there are tomatoes dangerously - having tried them, at once will feel unwell, and even in the 20th century tomatoes in pots could be seen on window sills among other houseplants.
But we will not go deep into history of tomatoes. Interests us that people ate when they were not. And scientific sources to us narrate that “ in hotbeds grew up a garden radish, salad, fennel, green onions, spinach, peas, a cauliflower, cucumbers. Besides, in an open ground grew up cabbage, a swede, cucumbers, beet, a radish “ (Yu. Belopukhova). Again this swede, just already interestingly. But this list somehow too does not give representation. It is necessary to drop to a vivifying source of the Russian literature:
Dinner was served plentiful, to foods to the account was not. On the first change put different pies, fast and fish. There was a coulibiac with millet and mushrooms, there was another with vyazigy, fats, milts and the Siberian sturgeon. A circle their, exactly small children round parents, stood saucers with different pies and pryazhenets. What was not here!. And sour hearth on nut oil, and pryazhenets with a salmon, and cheese cakes with mushrooms, and fritters with granular caviar, and pies with telny of a pike. Guests coped with the first change, were accepted to the second: for Stukolov`s post-nickname noodles juice yes Russian cabbage soup with mushrooms, and resolved an ear post from fat vetluzhsky sterlets was put.
- Eat ushitsa - that, kind mine, - the father Mikhail Patapa Maksimycha treated, - sterlyadka, seem, nothing to yourself, suitable, - he said, putting in a plate to dear visitor two huge links of an amber sterlet and a nalimya of a liver. - In a night purposely drove to Vetluga to hunters. From us no distance, versts twenty. Also sterlyadka come into our Usta and it is not frequent... Rastegaychikov to an ushitsa - that!. Eat, dear visitors.
was Worked by Patap Maksimych and vetluzhsky fish soup and rastegaychik. Also messmates worked, did not manage to look back as the dish of rasstegais disappeared, and in a bowl on a bottom one sterlet heads lay.
New change was on a table - dishes brine. Here again sterlets were razvarny with pickles yes carrots, besides put sturgeon cold with horse-radish and a beluga tyoshka with kvass and cabbage, tavranchuk osetriya, a pike under garlic and horse-radish, a nelma with salty podnovsky cucumbers, and to a post-nickname mushrooms razvarny with horse-radish and grated peas with nut oil and porridge juice with poppy oil. Behind brine change fried sturgeon, the breams filled with mushrooms and unreasonable size crucians were served. Then sweet jam pie, levashnik, fritters with comb honey, sweet kissels, the Kiev jam, the Rzhev fruit candy and the melons boiled in treacle, water-melons, pears and apples. Such lunch was gone by the father Mikhail... And it was prepared all though for Nikitishna just right. And another is better than some fruit liqueur one: both vishnevka, and pineapple, and polyanikovka, and cloudberries, and queen of all fruit liqueurs, fragrant Siberian sea-buckthorn. And what beer monastic, what honey stavlenny - a miracle. Such is was “ " institution; to guests in Krasnoyarsk to a monastery. Were dragged by Nasilu from a table to beds. (Millers - Pechersky, “ In the woods “).
of Daaaa, it seems in vain I felt sorry for them - ate fairly. Some temptation is simple, there is no rescue. Did not starve, pious... also ate not a swede at all! It is possible to read it only strong having had dinner. And only also remains to us that pictures to be consoled! Bon appetit, you look at health.