As appeared “ midget “? Andorra
Is such countries of which not only Russians think: “ Eh, it is good behind borders! “ , and and quite foreign inhabitants dream “ to pograzhdanstvovat “ for example, in Andorra. Some European, having caught sight of the car with the principality coats of arms on registration plate at " shop; Cash & carry “ where cheap sell goods in bulk, can maliciously filter: “ To pay taxes they have no money, in decent shop to do shopping … And why then you have such expensive car? “.
But we - that, since the childhood hearing “ and in a hat! “ we understand that it they is exclusive out of a green envy. Still, all would like in this corner of stability in the middle of mad Europe. Mountains, skis, clean air and continuous shops, cheap goods of the class “ luxury “ and any taxes: from the income, personal, there is even no payment for phone! And average life expectancy here the highest - 83 years. And where to hurry when to live so pleasantly!
Stability indeed - feudal. Almost, by in Andorra adopted on March 14, 1993 the Constitution. Rather late adopted the Constitution for the center of Europe? So tenor of life here such - slow. Here and the state of war with Imperialistic Germany declared by Andorra during World War I was officially stopped only in 1957. Forgot to include this country in the Versailles peace pact … And she, most likely, forgot. what everything began
A once Andorra stood on only an overland way from Europe to Spain. And this way was quite recovered: crusades, Napoleon with idea of world supremacy. And what means - to be on the military road? Correctly: white will come - plunder, red will come - … So andorrets seriously said that welfare of the principality directly depends on a road condition. The it is worse than the road, the it is higher.
To be fair it is necessary to notice that thanks to the “ roadside “ to an arrangement the edge also found the status of the independent state. According to the legend, Charles the Great granted independence of this part of the county belonging then to France Barcelonian in gratitude that locals carried out its troops through the Pyrenees to present Spain where he broke Moors. The first written mention of Andorra belongs to 843 and says that Charles II Lysy gave the valley of Andorra to the faithful citizen - Urzhel`s count.
The valley was under control of counts, under control of rich and influential church while in the 10th century were not transferred by the next successor of the earth finally to possession of the most ancient Catholic diocese of Urzhel.
It was time of active civil strifes, fight for lands and the power. Also the diocese where aristocrats - parishioners even overthrew once the bishop was not an exception and put new. The church was force influential and “ the “ the bishop could be always useful. Eventually, syuzerenitt over Andorra it appeared in hands of the only governor - the bishop Urzhelsky. And here the view of family lands was turned by the next offspring of an aristocratic family of the former owners.
How the God`s unarmed servant could protect himself? Only having pushed off the heads strong and armed.
Therefore in 1095 the bishop asks protection from the governor Kaboyet who was not even Catholic. As a sign of fixing of alliance, the daughter of the governor of these lands marries the aristocrat of the Catalan house - the viscount Kastelbo, and later - the daughter of this couple marries the French count de Foi. Spouses for the first time receive a title of counts de Foi, viscounts de Castelbo and Serdaniya and of soveren of Andorra , sharing the actual power with the bishop.
to You - a half, and me - a half...
But years go, children grow, bishops change. To put up a fence, without having scolded with neighbors, difficult. And here - to divide the power. One by one, there are between governors conflicts. And whether the judiciousness of the Catholic bishop, whether reasonableness of mind of the descendants de Foi who grew up on mountain air, played a crucial role, but the first written contract on division of the power - pareazh was signed with in 1278 . Not everything was simple: did not do without assistance of the king Aragonsky, and in ten years it was necessary to sign one more pareazh, but the fact - works this contract still. Stood more than 700 years.
In several centuries the title of count of de Foi passed for the lack of successors on the man`s line to the son-in-law of the last in a family of the count - to the king Navarrsky. So syuzerenitt over Andorra it was inherited by Heinrich Navarrsky and - yes, the Huguenot and future husband of Margarita Valois, the queen Margo. Having become the king of France Henry IV, he also transferred the right of management of the principality to the French kings, and then it passed to presidents of France.
Boris on reign...
in the history of Andorra also the Russian page Is. By the way, almost do not write about it in Catalan, official language of Andorra . Though it would be more logical not to mention to us. In 1934 the Russian immigrant and, speak, the lady`s man Boris Skosyrev used indistinctness of the reason of transition of the sacred right of the French kings for some civil president and declared himself the successor of imperial surnames - Boris I, the prince Andorsky, with indispensable declaration of war to the bishop Urzhelsky. “ Frightened “ the bishop, without having the army, asked the Spanish side for the help. Four gendarmes who stopped short-term government of the Russian tsar in the center of Europe were sent, having forwarded it in the Spanish prison. Andorra never had the.
the Contemporary history
Nothing in the world occurs just like that and does not pass completely. Skosyrev`s ambitions were shown because of discontent of some officials with feudality of a state system. Whether it was a consequence “ distempers “ but in 1930 - x years elections of a general council and the suffrage … for men were legalized.
There passed a little more time, at the end of 60 - x the telegraph and phone came to Andorra, the first national bank, library and archive, and in 70 opened - x transformations in a control system began. A lot of things were made by presidents of France Georges Pompidou and Giscard d`Estaing. The huge role was played by fall of the regime of Franco and the subsequent accession of Spain to the Common Market. In 1991 Andorra achieved from the European Union of big preferences in commerce, and in 1993 - m, after adoption of the Constitution, entered into the UN, the Council of Europe and UNESCO.
Now Andorra - “ parliamentary with - the principality “ which is operated by the government with the prime minister - the minister at the head and multi-party parliament. The foreign policy is defined, nevertheless, by nominal syuzerena - Spain and France. But it is unlikely that the country own helplessness in " disturbed; big “ to policy. Here main another - tourism and trade , money and tax paradise. If not to speak about high, trade was very powerful cause for the world at all times.
One tourists are attracted here by winter mountains. The plane from Moscow to Barcelona reminds a suburban electric train in days of winter vacation in the winter - the noisy tribe of skiers, very many with children. Here the best alpine ski schools and routes of different complexity, are where to drive even to three-year-old kids.
Others are attracted all the year round by shops with duty-free goods, and it too - tourism. Here also 82 and a half thousand inhabitants turn, serving 11 million tourists a year. Also do not complain, and even on the contrary: wait for us! The ski season lasts from October to April.
You are not in time? Come around in the summer! In Andorra all the year round hold festivals of the jazz, dance, musical and theatrical seasons, gastronomic and sports competitions. It will not be boring! Well and of course: medieval architecture, unique feeling of time which stopped in mountains, and - shopping!