What built “ Domestic tyranny “?
At this monument of patriarchal culture of the 16th century difficult destiny. More than four hundred years ago it was read, moving lips, notable boyars and merchants, priests and competent handicraftsmen, she lived in oral retellings. On “ To the Domestic tyranny “ as well as it is necessary under the hand-written law, debugged the life. Then this book began to be forgotten slowly because times changed, as well as people.
And, perhaps, would forget it absolutely if there was in it no eternal, sometimes already well forgotten by us truth. A lot of things, a lot of things from “ Domestic tyranny “ underwent persecution, especially in 19 - 20 centuries. Supporters of revolutionary ideas did not favor patriarchal Russia. Here is only given that the majority of persecutors never held this book in hand, and everything that they spoke about it, heard from others, and that, others too somewhere heard something and repeated …
of Togo who really read “ Domestic tyranny “ cannot but strike abundance of kind, wise, light truth for which there is a wish to open heart, how many the simple and useful everyday tips actual even in so many centuries! For some reason often it seems to us that earlier people were more ignorant than us. And they, it appears, knew and were able many it that to us any more not to understand and not to manage. How not to return us that feeling of eternity of life, unity with the nature what the medieval person had.
In the head “ Kako vrachevatisya to hristiyana from diseases and any griefs “ the way to sincere and physical health - a righteous life is specified. It is necessary to go to church, to pray houses, to observe posts. But it a little! It is necessary to live on conscience. Do not render the evil for the evil, for slander - slander, sogreshayushchy do not condemn, remember own sins. Presenting persons in need, remember that the alms from the riches acquired by deception are objectionable to God as also the prayer of the person who is not exempted from anger, rage, envy is objectionable to it.
So the originator " edifies readers; Domestic tyranny “ the Blagoveshchensk priest Sylvester at the very beginning of the book devoted, in effect, to housekeeping. And whether not here the value secret " is hidden; Domestic tyranny “ that household councils are filled with morals, everyday efforts of the person are correlated to piety and conscience?
In the book all life is painted: from relationship of family members to a detailed, punctual regulation of all house way. “ Domestic tyranny “ teaches many virtues. Urging to help sick and unfortunate, Sylvester pays attention to that this help was not formal. “ Peer into trouble and sufferings, into all their needs, give to drink, feed, warm, with love and a clear conscience welcome “.
Peer into compassion! Not just give (“ unfasten “ in language of our contemporaries), and give that and exactly as it is necessary for this person, like his troubles, rise to compassion. Word “ conscience “ very often sounds at Sylvester. Lit with it, everyday situations in which it is important to offend nobody are solved, not to stipulate inadvertently, not to take, God forbid, the stranger.
You read and you think: “ Here they, beginnings of business ethics! “ Domestic tyranny thrift is conscientious, turned not only to own property. “ Any loan to take and give honestly, to store more strong, than the and to give in time “. At any commercial transaction to be decent, agree amicably, give money from hand to hand. To the one who is decent in commercial transactions, “ from God there is no sin, from people - complaints, and from merchants a praise in all lands “.
There is a strong wish that in this book there was nothing about house despotism of the husband and father. But it is. Not once is said that the husband and the wife have to consult about everything that the husband has to edify the wife. But if the wife to councils does not vnemlt if it is thriftless, lazy, it is necessary her “ to punish, talk some sense fear alone “. There is one cold comfort here: Russian polysemy. “ To Punish “ once meant not only to punish, but also “ it is strict to order, to instruct “.
But here concerning children there is no ambiguity any more. Whether it is guilty of this cruelty “ Domestic tyranny “ if all medieval pedagogics kept on physical punishments? Yes that medieval! In the educated nineteenth century of punishment birches were quite legalized. The head of the house bears moral responsibility for all the children and members of household: for the wife, children, servants. In it “ Domestic tyranny “ also sees a severity justification: it them “ fear rescues “. Even there is an emphasis on prevalence of the spiritual beginning over physical here.
So built “ Domestic tyranny “? I think, an inner world, morality of the person who on the virtuous understanding can build the house, a family, the life. And to us in this plan is to what here to learn.