About what “ speak “ letters from the front? Part 2
In the XX century many tests fell to lot of our people. One of them - World War II which changed destinies of millions of people. About what was endured by them felt with what chagrin, cares and pleasures met, - “ speak “ to us letters of a wartime. There were not enough envelopes. Letters - triangles came from the front. Sent them free of charge. The triangle is a usual leaf from a notebook which was bent at first on the right, then from left to right. The remained strip of paper was inserted in a triangle.
For a long time correspondence of close people of that time stopped being a personal record. It is already history. In the historical museum of the city of Roslavl the big collection of front letters is collected. Nikolay Iyevlev wrote the letter home in 3 weeks prior to war: “ Mother, about me be not anxious. Everything is good. It is a pity that there is nobody to be engaged in our garden. We have wonderful apple-trees. In the place where there is our military college, very beautiful woods. In the mornings it is possible to see elks “.
Leonid Golovlev could not find nearly two years the family. Only in 1943 relatives received from it the letter: “ Knew Nothing about your destiny, was anxious. I cannot present how you endured occupation. Let`s hope that now everything will be good. What to tell about itself? I am at war. It is live and healthy “. Leonid was missing in 1944. Nikolay Feskin`s letters are full of fatherly love. In the back it had wife Eudoxia and three children. Here several phrases from the letter of the veteran: “ … I kiss you many times. Very much I want to see. Children - Bringing down, Vitya and little Mirochka - me dream “.
In 1995 the daughter Nikolay Feskin Mira Kolobneva transferred letters of the father to the museum.
The person always remains the person, even in the most difficult conditions. In the years of war young people often corresponded in absentia. So, the officer of field army sent to Ekaterina Katayeva unfamiliar to it the letter from the front. Ekaterina Karpovna spoke, remembering this time: “ Killed our grooms in the war. My boyfriend died near Stalingrad. And here the letter from Semyon Alekimov came. First did not want to answer. And thought of how our tell-tales are at war there and wait for letters, decided on the answer “.
Hardly was to Katya. Them was five at mother. The father died in 1936. The more young people corresponded, the their feelings became stronger. The senior lieutenant Alekimov had close calls more than once. Remembers how by miracle survived during bombardment when their platoon was transported through the river Berezina as happened under firings of the German planes. After war Semyon Alekimov will tell: “ In one day also ten lives, and ten death in the war live. But always dreamed of the Katyusha “. Katya and Semyon managed to endure all adversities, the destiny connected them.
Almost in each soldier`s letter it is possible to read lines about the fellow soldiers who were killed in battles, desire to revenge for them. Briefly, but words about death of loyal friends in the letter of the private Alexey Petrov dramatically sound: “ Our tank case disengaged, and people much " died;. And here that the son Ivan wrote the father to the village: “ The Father what heavy fights … go would know you as my companions " battle;.
The soldier Vladimir Trofimenko told the relatives to the Sumy region: “ We struck near Babruysk a hard blow to Germans. There is a wish that 1944 was the last year of war. Now Germans raise hands before us, young soldiers in dusty soldier`s blouses. I see future peace time already now, I hear singing of girls, laughter of children … “ This letter, as well as other news from Vladimir, got to the local museum. In years paper became absolutely transparent. But words of the author are well visible. There are in the letter also deleted lines. This censorship tried. Everywhere there are marks: “ it is checked by military censorship “.
In August, 1941 in the " newspaper; Truth “ in “ to the editorial “ it was written about what is very important that letters found the addressee at the front. And further: “ Each letter, parcel …. pour in forces in fighters, inspire on new feats “. It is no secret that Germans destroyed communication centers, destroyed phone lines. In the country the system voyenno - field mail under supervision of the Central management of field communication was created.
Only in the first military year the State committee of defense made several decisions which concerned advance of correspondence between the front and the back. In particular, it was forbidden to use post transport for economic works. " mail vans; clung “ to all trains, even to military echelons.
Difficult there was a service of military mail carriers. In the staff list the position of the mail carrier was called as the forwarding agent. Berlin was reached by the mail carrier Alexander Glukhov. It daily bypassed all divisions of the regiment, collected the letters written by fighters, brought them to field mail. More than once it was necessary to visit fight. In his huge bag there was always a place for cards, paper and pencils for those who did not manage to stock up with these necessary accessories.
Alexander Glukhov later remembered years that he knew surnames of many fighters. However almost after each fight there were losses of staff. Already in a regiment staff it on the letters which did not reach addressees put a mark “ left part “. Veterans called such letters “ nevruchenka “.
It was not easier to work with the mail carrier and in the back. To Valentin Merkulov “ defined “ in mail carriers when she studied in 4 - m a class. Till a lunch she studied at school, and after classes was engaged in delivery of letters. From the settlement Bulgakov that in the Oryol region where she lived with sick mother, this little girl went with letters on nearby villages every day, to any weather. Is later than Valentin, remembering a wartime, shared impressions with readers of the local newspaper: “ I had no Warm clothes, but mother got at someone from neighbors a jersey and rubber galoshes. So I also went “.
Already then young Valentina had to face both a grief and pleasure. People read some letters to all the village or the village. Messages from the front interested everyone. But was also death notifications much. The trouble and their family bypassed. Valentina`s mother lost in the war two brothers. Valin the father died later when he came from the front.
On the eve of the Victory Day people with special feeling expected letters.
Armenian Eduard Simonyan was at war in armored brigade which was a part of the Stalingrad case. In 1944 in their crew there were only 7 people. More than once it was wounded, lay in hospitals. At the end of war his mother received the notice on death of the son. And suddenly unexpectedly for it the letter, a treasured triangle in which Eduard wrote came: “ Dear mother, I got wound in Latvia. I lie in hospital. My left leg wound slowly drags on. We will win against a nemchura soon, then we will heal cheerfully and happily “.
And it is lines from Mikhail Martov`s letters on May 9, 1945 directed to the wife: “ Dear Tamara! All night long did not sleep. Scorched from all types of weapon. Here it, victory! What all these years dreamed of came true … We now in East Prussia. Here it is beautiful, spring “.
The gunner Nikolay Evseev told the family to the village Novocherkassk: “ On May 9 together with colleagues came back from Vienna, but on the road the car broke. All left it. We hear, somewhere up shoot. The route on the sky, then - the second went … Here then it became clear to all - it is the end to war! “
Today almost in each family there is a casket where front letters, photos and war decorations are stored. At each family the history. But all are united by one - the general participation in tragic events of World War II. Still the letters from the front burned, torn, which semi-decayed touch us up to the soul depth.
Over the years lessons of that war - bitter and victorious are not forgotten. And every time on May 9 somehow on - special words solemnly sound: “ The Feat of the people is immortal “.
Literature: “ Letters from the " front; (P. Vishnyakov), “ The died heroes " Speak; (Publishing house of political literature), “ Letters from the front darling “ (" Publishing house; ART “), materials of newspapers and magazines.