What was made for science by Sergey Alekseevich Chaplygin?
Once the tsar Peter I presented to the prince Menshikov the village Suburban. Menshikov constructed small fortress here and renamed the village into Oraniyenburg. There passed the road from Moscow constructed in those days to Voronezh. Subsequently through fortress the road to Orenburg and town was constructed began to call “ Ranenburg “.
In this city on April 5, 1869 (on March 24 on old style) Seryozha Chaplygin was born . Its marriage of parents was happy, but happiness it was short. When Seryozha was only two years old, the family was comprehended by a great grief: at the age of 24 years the father died of cholera. Anna Petrovna, Sergey`s mother, married again, and the family moved from Ranenburga to Voronezh.
Seryozha grew at the clever boy. Anna Petrovna decided to educate it and when the son was eight years old, employed to it the tutor - the seminarist. In the fall Sergey successfully passed examination in “ preparatory class “ also became the pupil of a gymnasium.
Teachers very quickly noticed unusual abilities of the boy. Faculty meeting exempts it from a payment for the doctrine. When parents of his schoolmates learned about mathematical abilities of the grammar-school boy Chaplygin, they began to invite him the tutor to the sons. Sergey ended a gymnasium with a gold medal. The famous mathematician living in Voronezh, the author of numerous school textbooks, A. P. Kiselyov admired Chaplygin`s abilities and prophesied it the great future. At the age of 17 years, having taken with itself 200 rubles which are saved up by tutoring and a small trunk with belongings, Sergey goes to Moscow.
Chaplygin arrived on the physicist - mathematical faculty of the Moscow university. As well as in gymnasia years, he continued to support the family. Earned by tutoring. At the same time it did not miss any lecture at university.
Having become the student, Chaplygin assumed to specialize only on mathematics. But since a third year its interests began to incline to mechanics. Lectures of professor of N. E. Zhukovskogo in which the wide range of scientific problems was lit really carried away Chaplygin, and he becomes one of the first pupils of Zhukovsky. On a last year of university Chaplygin under his management carries out the first scientific research on a hydromechanics. The thesis of Chaplygin was awarded a gold medal. B1891 on representation of Zhukovsky the graduate S. Chaplygin is left to year at " university; the candidate for preparation for a professorial rank “.
at the end of the 19th century at random, the practical aircraft blindly begins to take the first steps.
Planes were under construction only on the basis of intuitive assumptions. Nobody made any predesigns or experiments. Absence of scientific base for aircraft construction and imperfection of designs was the reason of a large number of plane crashes.
During this period scientists of many countries begin to conduct the early theoretical studies in the field of aerodynamics. In Russia it were works H. E. Zhukovsky and S. A. Chaplygin.
S. A. Chaplygin combines scientific work with pedagogical. Since September, 1895 he teaches mathematics at the Moscow university, and then in the Moscow technical school. In 1898 defends the master dissertation “ About some cases of the movement of a solid body in " liquids; awarded the Big gold medal of Academy of Sciences.
In the same time it starts studying of the movement of gas streams. It is known that liquid is almost not compressed. Gases, such, for example, as ordinary air, on the contrary, easily are exposed to compression. In aerodynamics it is accepted to call any incompressible liquid environment just liquid, and squeezed - gas.
It turned out that at small speeds the air stream behaves as the incompressible environment and therefore can be called liquid with a certain approach. With increase in speed of a stream such approach becomes too rough. It is necessary to consider more difficult model of a current. Research of such model is also started these years by Chaplygin.
The doctoral dissertation “ About gas streams “ S. A. Chaplygin wrote during stay in the Crimean sanatorium. Commitment did not allow it to leave work incomplete even on vacation. The complex mathematical problem was put and solved by Sergey Alekseevich extraordinary gracefully. The well-known thesis of Chaplygin the happy destiny was foreordained - it became the base of new science which was given the name " subsequently; Gas dynamics “.
In 1903, in thirty four years, Sergey Alekseevich becomes professor of the Moscow university. He is considered the brilliant young scientist, he is invited to give lectures on the Moscow high female courses. In several years council of professors of the high female courses is elected by S. A. Chaplygina by the director. In this position he organized construction of educational cases magnificent for those times.
In November, 1910 S. A. Chaplygin makes in the Moscow society of aeronautics the message “ Results of theoretical researches about the movement of the airplanes “. In this message it sums up the results of the long-term researches in the field of practical aerodynamics.
Recognitionthe High female courses were transformed 1918 by
B in 2 - y Moscow State University and Chaplygin remained his rector before merge of universities in 1919.
In 1918 Zhukovsky involves Chaplygin of just created Central aero hydrodynamic institute (TsAGI). All further life of Sergey Alekseevich is connected with TsAGI. After death of Zhukovsky in 1921 it becomes the chairman of board of TsAGI and directs institute till 1931. These years Chaplygin creates such full complex of magnificent laboratories which at once put forward TsAGI in the first row scientifically - research establishments of the world.
In 1924 Sergey Alekseevich is elected the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1929 - the academician. Chaplygin`s thesis “ About gas streams “ in 33 years (!) after publication becomes demanded and gains the international recognition , it in the center of attention of conference on questions of the high-speed aircraft passing in 1935 in Rome.
Fall of 1941 of TsAGI transfer to Kazan and Novosibirsk. Chaplygin began to direct Novosibirsk branch. In the shortest possible time it managed to develop hard work on the new place. Projects were again developed and aerodynamic laboratories were under construction, hard scientific work was conducted. But years and the postponed diseases have an effect more and more. On October 8, 1942 Sergey Alekseevich died.
In 1948 the city of Ranenburg is renamed into Chaplygin in honor of the famous fellow countryman S. A. Chaplygin. Since 1954 the city is included into again formed Lipetsk region.