As A.S. Griboyedov was at the cost of the life convinced that “ Mission is impracticable “?
on February 11, 1829 (on new style), 180 years ago, in far Tehran happened an event which deprived the Russian literature of one of her most talented representatives - Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov. The brilliant playwright who was in time to write several plays immortalized the name of one of them - “ Woe from Wit “ fell from hands of the Persian rebelled crowd.
News of it was brought by the only secretary of the Russian Embassy of Lads who escaped after bloody slaughter. It came to Moscow only in March, and a coffin with a body of the dead of the diplomat was brought to Tiflis only at the beginning of May. Not really known fact: in Gergerakh the coffin met the namesake of the dead - Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin - and silently bowed to ashes of the died playwright … Why Persia turned out
so cruel to the Russian envoy? Whether it was possible to avoid the tragedy, without bringing the matter to a smertoubiystvo? Before violation of already breathless corpses? It is for certain known that Griboyedov was managed to be identified only on the little finger of the left hand mutilated after Yakubovich`s shot on duel … Everything began
A first this ancient country met Alexander Sergeyevich if not with open arms, then is quite kind. There was it in far 1817 when the young official of board of foreign affairs was defined by the secretary of the Persian mission in Tavriz (on - Persian - Tabriz), the city where on a legend the bible Eden was located.
Griboyedov was very educated young man (then he was only 22 years old). He in perfection knew the German, French, Italian and English languages, understood, but spoke with emphasis in Latin. Whether it is worth saying that within several months Alexander Sergeyevich mastered also Persian, and so that he began to read the Persian philosophers and poets in original language.
Such respect for the country of residence did not remain unnoticed. The young diplomat got special favor at prince Abbas - Mirza. Business reached that the prince managed to persuade the father of the shah to award the order to Griboyedov Persian Lev and Solntsa of the II degree.
And, at last, in Persia at Alexander Sergeyevich the plan of its immortal comedy was born. In four years in the foreign land it stoskovatsya very much across Moscow, St. Petersburg, and once when he fell asleep in a small arbor in a garden, the marvelous dream dreamed it. He returns home, comes to the girl on whose favor counts, and hears a terrible voice of her father: “ Parsley, it is eternal you with a new thing, with the broken-off elbow! “.
Having woken up Griboyedov right there took up the pen. Until the dream finally was effaced from the memory, the playwright made the first sketches of the subject plan of the future comedy. Also it was begun right there, in Persia and when the play took control of all its being, the diplomat managed to claim four-months holiday at the administration. The playwright put the final end to the play, being in Tiflis. But, having arrived to Moscow later to St. Petersburg, quickly found out that some of his views on “ Moscow society “ hopelessly became outdated. So it was necessary to sit down for the play again and to introduce certain amendments.
The same year Alexander Sergeyevich wrote the official report with the application to dismiss him from mission. So its first Persian stage ended.
the Second campaign behind glory
New appearance of Griboyedov in Persia occurred without any exaggeration in Jesuit circumstances. In 1826 - 1828 Russia was at war with Persia, and this war came to the end with signing of the Turkmanchaysky contract on February 22, 1828. According to it, Persia undertook to pay contribution of the Russian Empire, and in board of foreign affairs remembered that Griboyedov in an owl time was very amicable with the prince. And time so, friction concerning payment will be less.
The East - business thin. Having learned that the Russian mission at the head of his old friend Griboyedov as a part of 30 people under protection of 16 Kuban Cossacks goes to Tehran, the crown prince Abbas - Mirza sent 15 thoroughbred racers. And prince Adbul - Mirza, presented a racer to Griboyedov, and also changed 15 tired horses for fresh.
Very respectfully also the shah of Persia met the Russian mission on January 27 (on new style) 1829. To Griboyedov it handed an award of the Lion and Solntsa to the I degree, his officials the same awards II of degree, to simple Cossacks - gold medals. Nothing foretold tragedies …
special circumstances Are...
But events developed too promptly. Soon in ours “ embassy “ under the screen of night one person by the name of Mirza - Yaqub who admitted that he served as the main eunuch in a hansky harem broke, ran away from there and seeks a political asylum. The etiquette demanded from the envoy not to refuse this request. Though on the other hand he understood that murder will out, and this act will cause anger in the shah.
The second circumstance which influenced a situation: contribution payment. Persia was ruined by war and could not pay everything wholly. But Griboyedov was relentless and on any concessions did not go. Business reached that the crown prince Abbas - Mirza to pay off, was forced even to cut off all diamond buttons from dressing gowns of wives of the harem. The envoy received these buttons, but lost the only thing in this country of the ally and friend.
The third circumstance which could not but affect: Griboyedov was any more not that enthusiastic young man what he arrived to Persia 12 years ago. Then he talked to all from an equality position, now was forced to talk from force position that was obviously not pleasant to proud Persians. And, disrespect reached that even in conversation with the khan Alexander Sergeyevich began to afford disrespectful tone.
The fourth circumstance - Griboyedov had a personal enemy - the first minister Alayar - the khan, the son-in-law of the great khan, the opponent of rapprochement with Russia. He did not even try to cover the hostility in relation to the head of the Russian mission. Though, it is not excluded that worked on the father-in-law pointer. Why with gyaury not to play in “ kind “ and “ angry “ investigator?
And, at last, a last straw which exhausted all patience of Iranians. Griboyedov demanded delivery of two Russian women to him who were captured by Asif - piece - Dovlet and contained in the harem. Women were turned into Islam, and they already were under protection of the head of the Islamic state. And, nevertheless they were brought to embassy. In principle, they should be placed somewhere in the Muslim house, and so they appeared under the same roof with incorrect moreover young men. It is no wonder that across Tehran rumors crept away that outraged upon women …
Seized the momentAll this
and brought crowd to the building of the Russian Embassy. And further an event developed so. Griboyedov gave the order - to shoot at fanatics blank cartridges. The volley was made. But here it turned out that one of Persians fell down dead. Most likely, it “ cut “ someone from the. But the blood-stained body was dragged right there to the mosque where the appeal to redeem blood devout with blood his enemies was distributed.
Cossacks beat off to the last boss. But forces were too unequal. In total 37 members of mission and 19 Iranians were killed. The only survived secretary Maltsov since morning was sent by Griboyedov to the khan. Thanks to it he also escaped.
The furious crowd dragged several days Alexander Sergeyevich`s body on streets of Tehran, and then dumped in a hole where bodies of all killed already lay. And only several months later it allowed to exhume and take out to Tiflis.
Death - as a changeis short
A about further succession of events now. The khan appeared so “ it is grieved “ death of the Russian mission that sent to St. Petersburg the grandson as the head of the delegation with a request “ to hush up the conflict “. Here also showed to the grandson of the khan the letter which allegedly, only - only came from Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov, with a request to soften burden of a debt for Persians. Russia needed the ally in fight against Turkey, and this debt soon in general was remitted. So the playwright became, in fact, a change.
His young widow, 16 - to summer Nina Chavchavadze, decided not to speak about death of the husband as she was a pregnant woman. Reported to her about it how the body of her spouse was brought to Tiflis. From frustration at the widow premature birth began … She delivered to
on its grave a chapel where she erected a monument on which wrote such lines: “ Mind and your affairs are immortal in memory of the Russian; but for what my love endured you? “.
Nina Aleksandrovna endured the husband for 28 years and died in 1857 of cholera. She is buried near the darling …