As matured, the prince Dmitry Moscow, become for Russia " reached manhood and prepared for decisive fight; Donskoy “?
the summer breeze Joining a window smelling of the drying-up hay and ripe apples shake an icon lamp spark in a place of honor and slightly rumples hair of the gray-haired person inclined over the manuscript. From - under sharply perfected feather run on parchment of a line: “ Already, brothers, blew strong winds from the sea to mouths of Don and Dnieper, brought thunderclouds on the Russian land, from them bloody summer lightnings act, and in them blue lightnings tremble. To be to knock and a thunder great on the small river to Nepryadva, between Don and Dnieper, to become covered by corpses human I weed to Kulikov, to begin to flow blood to Nepryadva - the small river! “.
“ Zadonshchina “ created by the boyar Sofony Ryazants soon after the Battle of Kulikovo, in centuries informed us of the epic description of the greatest event in the history of the Fatherland which laid the foundation to liberation of Russia from the Horde yoke.
The victory on Kulikovo field is inseparably linked with a name of the grand duke Dmitry Ivanovich nicknamed in the people Donskoy. The prince lived life short, but bright, uniting Russian lands and in cruel secha protecting them from overseas enslavers.
Dmitry`s childhood passed in the Horde and, probably, was not carefree. Having early remained the orphan, he in 10 years was forced to plunge into heavy management science the state. It is hard to say how there would be also its destiny and destiny of Russia if the wise spiritual mentor, the skilled politician and the faithful associate metropolitan Alexy was not near. Relying on the enormous all-Russian authority and when it is necessary - and on imperious pastoral influence, the prelate rallied the Russian principalities around Moscow, extinguished hostility between specific princes, asserted Dmitry`s rights for a grand-ducal throne.
Protecting Dmitry`s interests, the metropolitan Alexy had to go several times to the Horde that those years was not safe at all. During war with Lithuania, he to restrain her allies - princes Smolensk and Tver, imposed on them an anathema and achieved from the Constantinople patriarch of her statement. Thanks to its persistence, from the patriarch it was directed to Russia several diplomas addressed to the grand duke, the metropolitan and all Russian princes in whom the excommunication of the Tver and Smolensk princes was confirmed and all princes Russians were called for obedience to the metropolitan and the union with Dmitry Moscow.
Under careful guardianship of the metropolitan Moscow was poured by force, collecting around itself Russian lands, the young prince reached manhood, being gathered by the state wisdom and military valor.
Continuing the association of Russian lands begun by Ivan Kalita, the eleven-year-old adolescent Dmitry headed the regiments which opposed the foe of Moscow - suzdalsko - the Nizhny Novgorod prince. From now on it it is almost continuous in wars. In heavy fight against Lithuania and strong Russian principalities - Tver and Ryazan fighting skill of the young prince ripens, there is a confidence that came it is time to prepare for war with the main opponent - the Golden Horde. About need of such fight persistently puts some idea to Dmitry and the metropolitan Alexy, constantly reminding the grand duke that to stop princely conflicts and it is final only the winner Ordy will be able to rally Russia.
Construction in 1367 - 68 years in Moscow to white stone fortress became the first step of Dmitry which gave it to Kulikovo field subsequently. Any of the cities North - east Russia at that time had no stone fortresses, and ordynets apprehended construction of stone Moscow walls as an open call.
Being guided by the patriarchal word and authority of the metropolitan Alexia, Dmitry collected in 1374 - 75 years in Pereslavl-Zalessky two princely congresses which put a basis to the anti-Horde union of the Russian princes. Having got support of princes, Dmitry openly refuses a former policy of appeasement of the Horde and not to allow attack on Russian lands, begins to send the regiments for principality borders.
In March, 1377 he sends united moskovsko - the Nizhny Novgorod army under command of the voivode Dmitry Bobrok Volynsky to the large center of the Horde trade to the Volga region the city the Bulgar. The city was taken, and Volga region trade passed under control of the Moscow prince.
Big changes during this period happen also in the Horde where in 25 years more than twenty khans were replaced. As a result of interdynastic distempers the real power appeared at a temnik of Mamaya who became the actual governor of the Golden Horde and even managed to restore its military power partially.
Opposition of the Horde and Russia accrued. Even more often the Horde groups began to appear on borders of Russian lands, devastating the Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod lands. In August, 1378 the voivode Mamaya Begich went to attack to Russia. To a meeting to it there was with regiments a prince Dmitry. In the Ryazan earth on the bank of the small river Vozha of a host met. Fight was short and furious. Ordyntsa “ abandoned a spear the and ran for the river for I Carry, and ours began to pursue them, cutting and pricking, and great variety killed them, and many of them drowned in the river, “ - the contemporary of these events wrote down in the story about fight on the river Vozhe. For the first time for one and a half centuries ordynets suffered a great defeat and felt the increased power of Russia.
Defeat on the river Vozhe shook Mamaya`s position in the Horde and he began to prepare a campaign to Moscow. Nearly two years it saved forces. It managed to bring together by promises, threats and bribery huge army into which entered not only groups of all people subject to the Horde, but also the Genoa infantry chained in armor, gangs of various adventurers and seekers of an easy mark. The help to Mamayu was promised by old opponents of Moscow - the Ryazan principality and Lithuania.
Dmitry watched closely Mamaya`s preparations and prepared for heavy fight. On July 23, 1380 he received a message about performance of ordynets in a campaign. Hour of decisive fight came. To the Russian principalities messengers with a message jumped that the grand duke collects regiments. Kolomna was appointed the place of collecting. But there were not even enough integrated princely teams obviously for protection of Russian lands against invasion, and Dmitry makes the decision to collect a militia.
The only force which could stir up all Russia and stir it to action against ordynets, there was an orthodox church. In many respects thanks to the help to church it was succeeded to bring together practically from all Russian principalities enormous army, similar to which Russia did not know before. Under Dmitry`s banners there were even certain princes from Lithuania.
In the foggy September morning 1380 on Kulikovo field of the Russian the army was built for decisive fight. For Dmitry Moscow the muzhaniye time ended, great battle to which he went for many years and which should immortalize his name came nearer.