Who for the first time automated the lathe? Andrey Nartov of
Russia long since was famous for the people who were a simple man of the people who, having learned to read and write, were not satisfied with what has already been achieved, and continued to study and made great discoveries. They became or scientists as Mikhail Lomonosov, or inventors as Ivan Kulibin. Andrey Konstantinovich Nartov who created the first-ever automated lathe was one of such also.
How everything began? Pyotr I was famous for the fact that he looked for workmen of people everywhere - shipbuilders, armorers, architects. Usually he invited foreign masters to St. Petersburg, sometimes sent the Russian people to the western countries for study. He noticed many talented natives of the people in Russia, hired many to himself, at some even itself studied skill. Because it was the strangest Russian tsar. Everything was interesting to it, it was necessary to understand everything, the hands to experience any business. It tried almost all crafts in which his citizens were engaged unless not cross stitched.
Once Pyotr visited the Moscow school of the mathematician founded by him - navigation sciences, taking place in the Sukharevy tower. There was a turning workshop there, in it he also noticed the young fellow who was dexterously coping with the machine. Pyotr liked Andrey Nartov`s work, he in him beheld mind of the inventor (on it the tsar had an intuition).
A time later, in 1712, Pyotr called Nartov to St. Petersburg and that became one of favourite mechanics of the tsar. In the imperial tokayena, happened, they worked shoulder to shoulder, and the sixteen-year-old young man, without hesitating, taught the tsar as it is correct to hold a cutter with what force it is necessary to press on the turning pig not to spoil work.
Pyotr often took him with himself in trips on the industrial enterprises where Nartov could get acquainted with the equipment, technological processes that, of course, affected subsequently its production activity.
There passed time, there was 1717. Andrey matured, and it seemed to him that the machine can be remade. At that time turners held cutters in hand, and it was business hard. And the machine had to be set in motion a leg that too did not promote simplification of work. Here also the young master thought of how to facilitate work of the turner. Also constructed the device which is now used in lathes.
Now this device is called a support, it is intended for fastening of a cutter and movement of the processed material, this on a surface. Andrey showed to the tsar drawings, that realized at once that the young man offers a great cause. Kissed the inventor and ordered to manufacture immediately to the Weapon yard the machine.
In 1718 - 1720 the Russian mechanic visited various countries of Western Europe where he examined achievements of foreign masters and showed the machines. Presented on one machine to the Prussian king Friedrich - to Wilhelm and Parizhskoy Academies of Sciences. “ The Parisian academicians were amazed with the unprecedented accuracy in France, purity and speed with which Nartov worked at the lathe. It produced the most difficult shaped products so perfect that it seemed incomprehensible.
And nothing is present surprising that the French experts did not want to trust the eyes. Nartov worked on excellent tokarno - the copy medalyerny machine for a vytachivaniye of the relief image at a flat face surface of the rotating round disks, the machine with a mechanical reztsederzhatel, a self-propelled support - the automatic machine which turned a cutter from manual into the mechanical, automatic working " tool; . This machine still costs in Paris, in the Museum of national storage of arts and crafts.
In 1721 A. K. Nartov designed and constructed the metal machine for cutting of gear hour wheels. In 1723 - the m created the lathe with the drive by means of a wheel. “ Upon the demand of Peter I Nartov had to build machines for a vytachivaniye of art products. But besides “ entertaining “ machines for satisfaction of whims of the tsar, Nartov is engaged also in creation of cars of production appointment. He constructed “ the car that pulls " lead; developed “ mechanical ways, the stone " is as if easier also pryamy to prick;. In the same years it began works on creation of the project of the mighty lock gate for the Kronstadt dock constructed only to the middle of century. “
I after death of the tsar Andrey Nartov continued to invent machines for various purposes, but the creation of a support and the drive of the machine from a wheel which released hands and the turner`s legs was his most important invention. And presently the whole world continues to use its opening. It is a pity that not all turners know thanks to whom the hard work is facilitated so that it is possible just to stand at the machine and to watch its work.
Now, of course, machines are automated to a maximum, they are run by electronics, shaft rotate powerful electric motors. But all this only advanced machines of Andrey Konstantinovich Nartov, native of the Russian people.
By preparation of article information from the " magazine is used; Equipment. Region “ oborudovanieregion. ru.