Rus Articles Journal

What did Francis I lose on February 23, 1525 and what was found by mister Dumas?

are Already ninety years as our fellow citizens solemnly celebrate on February 23. Historians are not tired to argue whether leaders of October revolution had bases to designate this day as a holiday of the birth of new Red Army. But irrespective of results of dispute none of them disprove the fact that long before the beginning of the 20th century this day there was an event which became a milestone on the way of development of military science and affected lives and destinies of millions of people on all planet.

The event took place at the end of the first quarter of the 16th century, more precisely - on February 23, 1525. The French throne was occupied by the thirty-year-old ambitious monarch Francis I Valois. By this day the reckless and cheerful king ruled ten years, meeting from citizens only love and honoring. Life, as they say, was successful. The only thing that saddened it - neighbors of Gabsburgi.

On the way to a cherished dream of the ambitious monarch - the emperor`s crown - Gabsburgi were a considerable obstacle. Did not agree to cede to the young handsome in any way Naples and Milan without which to become the emperor there was no opportunity. They, you see had plans. Moreover, it is not enough them Italy, so any minute you will stand gaping - you will be left without Navarre and Burgundy.

Generally, whatever one may do, and without good war nothing was impossible. Francis also began it. By the way, wars it turned out whole four and further the conflicts between France and was enough with Gabsburgami. Well the speech not about them, and about events on February 23, 1525 which finished the first war. Its end was not such successful for Francis at all as the beginning. But one after another.

Final fight happened for Pavia. Brilliant Francis with huge army and powerful artillery to a descent destroyed a wall and rushed into the city. But not here - that was! Repeated overweight in number of army did not work! Defenders of Pavia were armed with clumsy sticks - arkebuza, the spat unpleasant lead pools.

It should be noted that the firearms those years were not a rarity in an infantry system any more. But the attitude towards him was as to something minor and low. Brilliant and most noble French noblemen considered unworthy death from the bullet released the ignoramus of humble origin. Hotheads even suggested to hang up those who armed with muskets. Probably, also Francis I who did not take measures for equipment of the army the perspective weapon adhered to the similar point of view.

There was nothing to oppose to a lead rain to French, and the king made the decision to be at war by the checked method, having besieged the city. The siege lasted not two, not four months until to the aid to the besieged garrison the Spanish troops appeared in time.

Their arrival disturbed the French king not strongly. Under banners of the general of Pescara heading Charles V`s troops there were 4 thousand knights and 19 thousand unreliable infantrymen, many of which did not receive a salary long ago, in this occasion terribly worried and were not going to risk for empty promises. Francis I could expose against them 26 thousand from which 6,5 were the perfect knights trained and tempered in fights and tournaments.

But events showed that numerical superiority not the most important. The result of fight was defined by the same damned arkebuza with ease perforating knightly armor and suddenly destroyed all color of the French knights.

The fight at Pavia which began in the evening on February 23, 1525 ended with a clear victory of Spaniards. Losses of French made 12 thousand people, Spaniards - are 24 times less. The star of brilliant noble knights was gone, the firearms proved the clear advantage.

Estimating defeat scales, Francis I captivated by Spaniards wrote in the vast letter to the mother Louise Savoyskaya: Tout estperdu forsl`honneur - is lost everything, except honor . Over time the phrase became winged.

Having returned a year later from captivity, the king of France immediately took measures for equipment of the army muskets. Those which armed noble heroes of novels of mister Dumas