Rus Articles Journal

Kirill and Mefodiy`s what contribution to development of Slavic culture?

Kirill and Mefodiy are widely known that they created the Slavic alphabet. As a result of creation of the alphabet Slavs had an opportunity to read and write in the native language. It became a huge step in cultural development.

Kirill (827 - 869) and Mefodiy (815 - 887) were born in Soluni in a notable family of the military where there were seven sons. Mefodiy was a senior, and Kirill Jr. Having matured, Mefodiy carried on family tradition and too went to military service. Enjoying support and protection of a logofet of the eunuch Feoktist who was a friend of their family, he moved ahead on service and quickly enough reached the strategist Slaviniya`s post. But this post did not hold it and after a while it left military service and was removed to the monastery where became the abbot.

Kirill unlike the elder brother decided all the time to devote to education. He studied in Constantinople at court of the Byzantine emperor Mikhail III. At the best teachers he studied philosophy, dialectics, arithmetics, geometry, rhetoric, astronomy and foreign languages. Except Slavic knew Latin, Greek, Arab, Jewish languages. After the doctrine was ended, Kirill took orders of the priest and arrived on service hartofilaksy at St. Sophia Cathedral. Soon too decides to be removed to the monastery. But it not for long managed to live in a privacy as it was returned to Constantinople in Magnavrsky university where he began to teach philosophy (for it he was nicknamed philosopher ) .

In 850 it was sent to Bulgaria where converted many Bulgarians to Christianity. After the numerous and tiresome travel Kirill arrived to the brother Mefodiy and spent several years to its monasteries.

In 860 Kirill and Mefodiy together made a trip to Khazars, having undertaken a missionary and diplomatic duty. Three years later, to be exact in 863 brothers were sent to the principality of Great Moravia in order that they preached Christianity in Slavic language also there. During this period Kirill creates the alphabet. Still opinions of scientists are various as nobody definitely knows whether there was that Cyrillics or the Glagolitic alphabet. Cyrillics was called in honor of Kirill (before acceptance of a monkhood - Konstantina). The Glagolitic alphabet received the name from the word glagol and almost completely coincided with Cyrillics, differing only in a form of letters. Already on the basis of the created alphabet Kirill and Mefodiy translated several prayer books from Greek on Slavic.

Further it should be noted that at that time there was a theory created in the Middle Ages trekhjyazychya which in church service and literature recognized only three languages: Greek, Latin and Jewish. Kirill and Mefodiy who preached Christianity in Slavic language caused discontent from the German clergy therefore they were accused of heresy.

In 866 brothers were called to Rome where Kirill transferred to the Pope Adrian II of power of Saint Kliment which were found by him in hersonessky travel. After that Adrian II wrote the special message in which granted permission to Kirill and Mefodiy to distribute Slavic books among the population.

Unfortunately, the trip to Rome was tragic. Kirill at once on arrival to Rome seriously got sick. At the beginning of February of 869 g he accepted a skhima and a new monastic name Kirill, and in several days died.

After this tragedy Mefodiy was devoted and received a dignity of the archbishop of Moravia and Pannoniya. In 870 it returned to Pannoniya, and went also to Moravia a bit later. The situation in Moravia was very difficult as the German clergy continued prosecutions of Mefodiy and his pupils. It is necessary to emphasize that their prosecutions were not vain, to them all - was succeeded to imprison for three years Mefodiy in a dungeon. The father Ioann VIII having learned that Mefodiy is imprisoned, demanded his release. Soon it was released. In 874 Mefodiy was rehabilitated the archbishop and continued church services in Slavic language.

In 884 he moves to Moravia where all the time devotes to the translation of the Bible on Slavic language.

In 885 Mefodiy was seriously ill. On April 19, and it was the Palm Sunday, he asked that it was carried to the temple where he read the last sermon. In the same day he died. Read the burial service over Mefodiy in three languages - Slavic, Greek and Latin.

Further in Bulgaria, Croatia, Serbia, Kievan Rus` the Slavic alphabet which was created by brothers was widely adopted. Today monuments are delivered to brothers Kirill and Mefodiy in many countries of the world. In the east and in the West they are esteemed as Saints. In Russia the holiday " is celebrated on May 24; Day of Slavic culture and writing .