Who was the brightest representative of fight for independence of the Belarusian people?
Konstantin (Kastus) Kalinovsky - are possible, the most considerable figure in the Belarusian history. And not only because he headed revolt of 1863 - 64 in Belarus, and even not because accepted martyrdom, but did not renounce the plans and the principles. It became a peculiar historical bridge between idea of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Belarusian nationalism of the beginning of the 20th century and as a result, creation of the independent Belarusian state in 1991.
Kastus Kalinovsky - a figure interesting and many-sided. And expression “ the talented person is talented in everything “ it is possible by the right to apply to this historical character.
Vincent - Konstantin Kalinovsky was born in 1838 in the village of Mostovlyana (now it is the territory of the Belostoksky voivodeship, Poland) in a family of the landless landowner. Graduated at first from school, then law department of the St. Petersburg university after which gained the diploma with degree of the candidate of the right. But it was not limited to occupations in these educational institutions. Kalinovsky was engaged in self-education much. His outlook was affected to a large extent by democratic revolutions which stirred up Europe in 1848. Kalinovsky participated in the various student`s revolutionary organizations, after the termination of university returned home and began creation same there.
And prerequisites for revolution on the Belarusian lands at that time were very serious. In 1861 the agrarian reform was carried out. But it only aggravated position of villagers, and landowners could take the next benefit. Injustice of an agrarian reform aroused country indignation. In Belarus it began to be developed national - the liberation movement directed against the serfdom remains against autocracy, for human rights and the citizen.
The edition Kastusem Kalinovskim " became one of important levers national - liberating fight; Rustic truth “ - the first in the history of the newspaper in Belarusian if it was it is possible to call so. It were just printed sheets. On them - the critic of the imperial power, an explanation of a real political picture in the country, and also an appeal of villagers to fight.
In 1862 Kalinovsky headed the Lithuanian provincial committee - the central body of preparation of revolt in the territory of northern Lithuania and the Western Belarus. It was for a revolutionary solution. This direction provided creation of the democratic republic, transfer of the earth to peasants. After a while the committee was dismissed, and Kalinovsky returned to native Grodnenshchina, on a post of the commissioner of revolt. Most likely, such movements made this region of Belarus the center of country revolt.
The imperial authorities threw all forces on suppression of peasants` revolts. In June, 1863 Kalinovsky was forced to return to Vilnya (nowadays - Vilnius) from where continued to direct the remains of country groups, trying to reanimate national fight.
The police vainly looked for the organizer of revolt. Already practically all other heads of revolt were arrested or emigrated. And Kastus did not hide, did not lay down on a bottom, and on the contrary, wrote and distributed instructions, orders, cared for providing insurgent groups with the weapon, clothes and food.
Kalinovsky planned the second wave of revolt for spring of 1864, but plans were not carried out. It was given the, the commissioner of Mogilevshchina (the region of Belarus). What is interesting, in Vilne Kalinovsky lived in one of quarters which belonged to university earlier, and directly through the road there was a general - the governor`s palace. Happy-go-lucky the revolutionary commissioner and his executioner were neighbors.
In court Kalinovsky gave evidences about the activity, but only about the, refused to speak about other persons who interested a consequence. On March 10, 1864 it was hung publicly up at Lukishskaya Square in Vilne. He then was only 26 years old, blossoming of life. For the short century he became a symbol of freedom of the Belarusian people. Full of thoughts and ideas - it it forever remained in our memory.