Rus Articles Journal

When the first computer was born? The world learned

In far February, 1946 that in the United States the first-ever electronic ENIAC computer which construction cost almost half a million dollars is started.

The unit, the equipment for which was mounted within three years (from 1943 to 1945), blew the mind of contemporaries the sizes. Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) - the electronic digital integrator and the computer weighed 28 tons, consumed 140 kW of energy and was cooled with aviation Chrysler engines. This year the ENIAC computer celebrated the sixty-third anniversary.

All computers invented to it were only its options and prototypes and were considered as experimental. And the ENIAC equal on power to thousands of arithmometers, was called at first electronic " calculator;.

Grandmother birthday man and great-grandmother present modern computers it would be possible to call the analytical Babbage`s machine to which invention not one calculating mechanical machine was already created with full confidence: arithmometer of the Squid, Blaise Pascal`s device, Leibniz`s car.

But them it is possible to carry unless to usual to " calculators; while the analytical device of Babbage was already, in fact, the full-fledged computer, and the astronomer (and even the founder of Royal astronomical society) Charles Babbage became history as the inventor of the first prototype of the computer.

Babbage movable by desire and need to automate the work in which there were many routine mathematical calculations looked for solutions of this problem. And though by 1840 it far promoted in theoretical reasonings and almost completely finished development of the analytical car, but he did not manage to construct it because of a set of technological problems.

His ideas too advanced technical capabilities of that time and therefore similar even if completely designed devices could not be constructed during that era. The quantity of details of the car was more than 50 000. The device had to be put in action by energy of steam that did not demand presence of people and therefore calculations would be completely automated. The analytical car could carry out the specific program (a certain set of instructions) and wrote down it on punched cards (pryamougolnichka from a cardboard).

In the car there were all main components making today the modern computer. And when in 1991 to the two-hundredth anniversary since the birth of the inventor were created by the staff of the London Museum of science according to its drawings Differential car No. 2 and in several years - and the printer (it is powerful 2,6 and 3,5 tons respectively; with use of technologies of the middle of the 19th century), - both devices perfectly started working that visually showed: history of computers could begin on the whole one hundred years earlier.

But as it was already told, during lifetime of the inventor his child was not fated to see the world. And only after Babbage`s death when his son Henry assembled the central block of the analytical car, it was obvious that the car is efficient. Nevertheless, many ideas of Charles Babbage made the significant contribution to computing science and found the place in future designs of other engineers.

And still ENIAC developed especially for needs of army and intending then for shortchanging of ballistic tables of artillery and aircraft was the first, really working at practical tasks computer. At that time time it was one of the most important and serious problems.

Capacities and productivity computing army " resource; which consisted of people, began not to be enough catastrophically and therefore at the beginning of 1943 scientists - cybernetics were engaged in development of the new computer - the ENIAC computer (later the supercomputer was applied, except ballistics, for the analysis of space radiations, and also for design of a hydrogen bomb).

Today it is possible to note with confidence that in increasing frequency the conscious population of our planet faces computer technologies, and someone does not imagine also life without computer or the laptop any more.

For someone it is work, and for someone - an outlet and communication. And therefore it is necessary to this new party of our automated life, most likely, the big future and further development. And we, in my opinion, and not against, also find more and more useful and pleasant in computerizations our life!