When in Siberia radio appeared?
on air Siberia
Light memory of dear Teachers
Artemy Flegontovich Panfilov and Vladimir Nikolaevich Yaroshenko
and colleagues - Victor Aleksandrovich Elmakov and Igor Nikolaevich Sosnin`s zhurfakovets I devote
* * * to
On Vertkovskaya, 10, Vertkovskaya, 10, We bring to
addictions, habits, dreams...
hoping For good luck, hoping for memory,
we Try to obtain an essence, fearing vanities.
The Reporter of a kassetka - destinies of a roundabout
the Tape of years to a rakord, turning, will develop. Even if a little we managed to make
Nevertheless created the main thing: the soul.
And it it is weightless on air soaring,
Under high laws creating life,
Being indignant, exulting, loving and suffering,
Will keep silvery your name...
August shaggy - sad
Drags on Vertkovskaya clouds tyshchetonny weight, grieving...
But also in August often happens happy
our Irrepressible live soul...
It is lines from the poem which I likely thirty devoted years to the outstanding radio journalist, the original master of a living word Alexander Metelitsa back...
Ya appeared on Novosibirsk radio in November, 1974. Already and this date belongs to history what to speak about the beginning of the Siberian broadcasting.
In September, the 5th, is executed 80 years from that day when the First Siberian broadcasting station - (Novosibirsk radio) - began regular broadcasts...
the Recent graduate of faculty of journalism of MSU, staying then, 32 years
back, still under the influence of the strong incentive to scientific search set by all system of teaching in the Alma Mater I looked for points of application for the research potential.
In the radio House then was excellent library. I it is natural, became her reader. Once having removed the old book from the shelf, I saw on it a library stamp: First Siberian broadcasting station ...
Eureka! - - I told myself. The librarian Lina Aleksandrovna Mikhaylova confirmed that it is about Novosibirsk radio. I took an interest whether somebody went in for its history...
- - As far as I know, no. - it otvetat.
Ya rejoiced. I understood that the destiny provides me huge field of activity. Collecting and the analysis of materials on stories of a radiofikation of Siberia and the Siberian broadcasting. For me there was no question in where to look for necessary historical information. I perfectly acquired from university lectures that there are only three ways of obtaining information: studying of documents, interrogation of witnesses and supervision.
Within thirteen years of my work on radio I had an opportunity to observe its work, participating in it. All these years I was engaged as well in studying of archival documents, literatures on stories of Siberia, met those elderly people who stored in memory of a detail, the works of Novosibirsk radio concerning the first years... I Admit to
that originally the aspiration to become the candidate of historical sciences was my motivation. The candidate of science - it sounds is proud. I even passed examinations of a candidate minimum at department of television and broadcasting of the Moscow university. I even submitted the thesis on department. It was in 1978.
of Material on a subject at me was much. In the work presented at department it was stated extremely lapidarno. I believed that with my thesis all in a full order.
However at department on me was poured out, speaking figuratively, a tub of cold water. To me ordered to reduce the text of work half. And to fill a half of the remained volume with Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev`s statements having at least indirect relation to a subject wash works. .
Ya physically was not able to do it. I felt sorry for that for the most valuable and most rare information which I managed to collect. It was a pity to put on its place worthless Brezhnev`s hrenoten. The soul to this occupation did not lie at all. All right, - - I solved, - - let while work will lie down, can be later I will think up that with it to do... But did not think up. It was resolutely opposite to me to be engaged in a similar vivisection of the work - and I waved a hand on the thesis.
B 1986, in anticipation of 60 - the anniversaries of Novosibirsk radio, aired my 14 broadcasts Pages of memory told about how the Siberian broadcasting began... 10 years later, to the 70th anniversary of Novosibirsk radio, I though by then did not work for radio any more, talking in studio to the correspondent Sergey Smerdov which - that told listeners about the first steps of a Novosibirsk radirveshchaniye... There passed ten more years...
Already almost ten years I live in New - York. Here too there are Russian television and broadcasting companies, but what they do today, I call an oglupleniye of listeners - and I do not take part in it. I practically departed from journalism. But the saved-up creative potential demands an exit. I found it in poetic creativity. And, I write not lyrical verses, but big, epic works. So, for example, a few years ago I finished the three-volume novel - the poem Family having told in it about to life and destiny my parents, grandmothers and grandfathers... This book I began to sum up the results of my creative life. Its second result has to become 18 - the languid poetic epic Journalism faculty . Now in work the seventh volume.
On turn one more - Tells Novosibirsk .
what I offer readers Schools of life in a year 80 - the anniversaries of Novosibyuirsky radio - some kind of synopsis of future poem. If the Lord gives me time for all that is planned, then readers will see also my poem about Novosibirsk radio. This subject is still interesting to me, as well as 32 years ago, I hope that it is interesting also to others...
1974. Abrupt steps on Vertkovskaya...
On Novosibirsk radio I got (though there it was distributed upon termination of university) only from the second, even from the third, calling. When in the spring of 1974 time to be distributed approached, I decided not to neglect a situation, and to independently look for the place of future work. Having called on radio Novosibirsk, I was introduced to the chairman of committee of that time on television and broadcasting Georgy Prokopyevich Vershinin. He was to me quite kindly favorable disposed, sent a personal summons for work to faculty, promised to provide the room and sent lifting. Distribution went without problems.
of the Problem began later when I was called suddenly in the Krasnopresnensky military registration and enlistment office and reported that it on me has certain types the Ministry of Defence owing to what my distribution loses force. I should have sat in Moscow and to expect conscription. Having called Novosibirsk again, I explained a situation to Vershinin. Lifting by this time I already received. I reported that I want to return lifting. Vershinin was very angered. It seems that about the forthcoming conscription he did not believe in the version at all, having considered, apparently, that
Ya found a way to get a job in Moscow...
the Story about how I spent these months in Moscow where my family stayed at this time - (I was married and at me the sonny grew up) - I lower. It is important that in November the Ministry of Defence in my person refused the military translator - and I appeared with a chipped washing-tub.
Ya called Novosibirsk again. Georgy Prokopyevich Vershinin not really politely sent me far away. Went to the native Alma Mater. Here showed understanding and sympathy and - through department of promotion and propaganda of the Central Committee of CPSU, and personally, through the instructor Leonid Petrovich Kravchenko (a name known, isn`t it?) - organized to me new distribution - to Ashgabat, in the order of the Central Committee of KPT. I will lower as not belonging to a subject, my Turkmen collision. I will tell only that in three days I already called to Novosibirsk again. This time I talked to the deputy Vershinina Gennady Semenovich Parfyonov. Wise this person with sympathy treated my drudgeries, invited to arrive to Novosibirsk. there is no
- - Vacancies now, - - he told. - You will work freelance, then the situation will be settled.... - -
Should tell that the situation was settled badly. Vacancies appeared, but Vershinin obviously revenged me, did not hire... I wrote notes in The Last news prepared the big program about pioneers of BAM - researchers of " design institute; Sibgiprotrans for the " program; Youth Voice which was directed then by Mikhpil Alekseevich Puzyrev.
Should tell that the technology of work accepted on Novosibirsk radio for me was unusual though I also graduated from radio office of faculty of a zhurnalisitka. The matter is that this radio office was specialized, international. Specifically I specialized in the German and Czechoslovak directions, respectively and trained in department of broadcasting to Czechoslovakia of the Moscow radio where I got used absolutely to other scheme of preparation of radio materials. Therefore on Novosibirsk radio quite often was trapped in questions of the organization of record, installation, studio work...
Department Latest news treated then the main edition of political broadcasting which was headed by Victor Aleksandrovich Elmakov, it is from Chuvashia. Being also a graduate of the Moscow university, he with sympathy and understanding treated me. He did not hide that Vershinin opposes to my employment to the state. Victor Aleksandrovich externally resembled the popular actor Igor Ledogorov: same narrow persons in sharp folds and attentive eyes. Directly department Latest news Victor Fedotovich Tarkhachev headed. Here to it I from the very first days had a resistant antipathy which in thirteen years of my work on radio did not weaken at all, and on the contrary, only became deeper. In the department run by it then still correspondents Anatoly Chernyshov and Vladimir Polozayev worked. These regular sorudnik were adjoined as a fighting non-staff asset by the playboy Pyotr Ivkin and Anatoly Chernousov who was in time to be called up for military service and directed to service to Germany shortly before the Victory.
Earlier (in sense before my emergence on radio, and not earlier than the Victory) Anatoly Filimonovich, Filimonych, or simply Philemon, was on the staff, but because of strong commitment to a green serpent it is taken off the payroll. Both Ivkin and Chernousov were reporters extra - a class, able to earn pretty well in the non-staff status. And, Philemon loved and was able to work in a shot that is very competently interviewed and kept reportings. Chernousov skillfully talked people. And, if the taciturn person from whom you will not extend the word came across to it, then he began to be filled in with a nightingale and if the interlocutor was talkative, Anatoly Filimonych was limited to only laconically formulated questions. I will add that in youth Anatoly Filimonovich was, according to stories of the people knowing him, the cool boxer. What however did not prevent the hooligans who attacked it to take away from Philemon a case with the figurative reportorial tape recorder, reporter . Tapping the texts on the typewriter, Anatoly Filimonovich kept saying:
- - Piastres, piastres... Blow - kopek, blow - kopek... It, being out of staff, rejoiced opportunities to earn...
an Outstanding and peculiar personality was Pyotr Ivkin. He perfectly understood agriculture, had information sources in all districts of the area. Having come running for an hour - another on radio, he got access to phone - and fast threw three notes from areas. Then it went to television and to editorial offices of newspapers and there too left three notes. So it, especially without straining, ensured decent earnings. At Pyotr Ivkin in Zhmerinke in own house with a garden there lived the father. Petrusha sometimes went there, arranging himself holiday. Before Ivkin was married, his wife and the son lived whether in Novosibirsk, whether nearby. Well, and Petrusha made success at the fair sex and willingly reported on colleagues on the new victories on the love front. It looked always superelegantno. In response to my compliments concerning its exterior, he every time answered what is not able to afford to look differently as has to make always success at ladies. Unlike Chernousov, Ivkin did not abuse alcohol. He wrote excellent stories and dreamed to write the novel. Anatoly Ivanov was an example for it. Ivkin many times in conversation mentioned a story about how Anatoly Ivanov wrote correspondence about the rural girl in the beginning as a vital reference point. After small literary processing from it the story " turned out; Song " Alkynes; on which plot the opera was written later. And at Anatoly Ivanov ahead was Eternal call ...
As the speech concerned hot for editorial Luda an alcoholism subject, I will notice that, unfortunately, Volodya Polozayev was the victim of alcohol also. Earlier he was the secretary of regional committee of Komsomol in Kostroma. The alcohol broke it Komsomolsk - party career.... Position of the correspondent Latest news Novosibirsk radio, seeming to me ultraboundary top, for it was as soon it became clear, the lowest point of slipping...
Is similar to Ivkin gonorarit and Efim Aronovich Klgan who was daily delivering sports information in all mass media. Efim Aronovich the veteran who lost a hand in fight was. Earlier another worked for radio frotovik and the disabled person Dvinyaninov. Evil tongues thought up a hokhma: If to Dvinyaninov two legs, and to Kogan two hands, then all others it would be possible to dismiss . Efim Aronovich managed to put so himself that if where - nibud, we will tell in Warsaw, there took place sports competitions to participation of residents of Novosibirsk, then the first person to whom called from - for borders the trainer of our fellow countryman who became the champion or the prize-winner was Efim Aronovich Kogan.
Ya was, it seems, in the same position, as these freelancers. In such and not absolutely. It was not enough experience, and moreover there was no their sticktoitiveness, impudence. And it was possible to communicate with Tarkhachev only from force position. As I was obvious intellectual that is was not able to press and take a throat, Tarkhachev not always put my notes in release Latest news and if put, then paid pathetic kopeks.
that senior " editor; Latest news in Novosibirsk the pathological miser, I knew, living in Moscow. To me, as well as other students, the grant, of course, was not enough for life. I thought up to myself small business which doubled my monthly income. On the weekend I went to some art exhibition, or to ENEA. Bypassing pavilions, collected information on the exhibits sent from the regional centers of the Union. Having returned to the hostel, I on the back of post cards (not to spend time for packing of letters in envelopes) on the machine threw information on this or that exhibit and addressed a card to department Latest news relevant regional or regional radio committee.
I usually received the biggest royalties from Ivanofrankovsk - the five for each note. It is visible, there on information the person clearly understanding my situation and wishing to support the student sat. Well, and the smallest fee to fifty - seventy five kopeks came from Novosibirsk. Comments are excessive.
Therefore I needed to break through in staff - on a firm salary. I got on reception to the manager. sector of the press of regional committee of party to Galina Vasilyevna Syomina. Before it worked just as the senior " editor; Latest news radio. Galina Vasilyevna listened to my story, poulybatsya, but began to promise nothing specifically. So very foggy expressed, whether promised whether is not present... I left her, concealing in soul at the same time both hope and disappointment...
K glavnoh editions of political broadcasting belonged also departments of promotion, the industry, rural farms and a correspondent network.
of branch departments were at the head of Augustus Aleksandrovn Voronin and Vera Nikitichna Shorets. The last by training was an agronomist. Therefore its transfers on agrarian subject were rather deep and qualified. Its presence at collective gave the chance and to other journalists with its help to increase erudition in the field of agriculture. The correspondent network was headed by Alexander Metelitsa, a raliozhurnalist by the grace of God, one their brightest masters of the sounding word in the country. Alexander Yakovlevich had many own creative lotions thanks to which each his broadcast became an event of public life. One of its creative receptions was that Metelitsa included sound records of fragments of the interview taken from his heroes, five, ten, twenty years ago in the radio sketches... Thus it showed to listeners destiny of the person in dynamics, in development. Its gruffish voice possessed hypnotic influence. Beginning to listen to its radioperelacha, you could not come off the receiver any more. the Main edition of political broadcasting with all its departments occupied with
the left wing of the first floor of the new House of radio on Vertkovskaya, 10. By the way, Vertkovskaya Street received the name by the name of the villages of Vertkova, to Tulki who was settling down once nearby on the river bank. Therefore those who speak " are mistaken; Vertkovsky Street . But it so, in passing.
the Right wing of the first floor was occupied by big concert studio. Here daily rehearsed Russian folk orchestra of Novosibirsk television and radio. Ivan Matveevich Gulyaev, the second conductor - Vladimir Polikarpovich Gusev was the artistic director of collective and its chief conductor. The orchestra was highly professional art collective. Musicians of an orchestra had conservatoire diplomas, awards for victories in creative competitions. Zapms of the works of the Siberian composers executed by an orchestra made important part of musical broadcasting of Novosibirsk radio...
the Second floor of the House of radio was given to department of release, announcers and technical services. Here radio studios, recording studios, hardware hangings, assembly, Quality Department, remmastersky were placed. In remmastersky elderly Jack of all trades Pyotr Semenovich conjured. There was no such technical task. Which he could not resolve. On the first floor of the House of radio there were elevators designed by it and with own hand manufactured of an aluminum corner for cleaning of high ceilings in big concert studio...
On the third floor was placed especially me the interesting main edition of art broadcasting. As there were I, in general, enough green the department of youth broadcasting caused in me especial interest. It was headed by Mischa Puzyrev, Mikhail Alekseevich. This department prepared a radio program Youth Voice and once a month - We are your privates, Russia . The department of broadcasting for children preparing the " radio newspaper was located with a row; Team Banner . The department was headed by Elena Mikhaelovna Mishchenko. At department the school of youth correspondents worked hard years. Her many pupils grew up in professional journalists. I can give two girls from station as an example Chick - Vera and Liouba. Running forward in my story, I will note that Vera Tenditnaya herself in the nineties was a correspondent of Novosibirsk radio. And I met Liouba Sharshavova to year in the ninety second in Saratov where she was then a correspondent of the Moscow German newspaper Neues Leben ...
Interested me in sense of prospects of employment and creative work as well department - literaturno - drama broadcasting. Svetlana Zaytseva, also the graduate of faculty of journalism of MSU managed it. It was a sort from Vologda. There was a conversation that earlier she was a ballerina. In any case told about the ballet extremely professionally.
was at the head of musical edition Antonina Vasilyevna Vedeneva. Together with it concerts according to applications, thematic programs about musical life of Novosibirsk were prepared by Lyusya Shulyak and Nina Dubkova. Lucie Shulyak`s husband was military and was soon transferred on service from Novosibrsk to Ukraine. Reading news from " today; independent Ukraine I continually encounter mentions of somebody Shulyak, the figure of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine... I reflect: but whether the husband it is that Lucie who advised me once on musical registration of broadcasts...
of Vacancy on radio continued to open, I knew it precisely. The editor-in-chief of art broadcasting Oleg Mikhaylovich Ryzhov even somehow suggested me to pass some kind of casting - to prepare for the youth program a radio sketch about the young scientist, the winner of an award of the Central Committee of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, Gagike Mkrtchyan. I created such sketch. It included quite qualitative literary text, fragments of interview of the main character... Over it the director Valery Cherepanov thoroughly conjured. The sketch was remarkably musically issued, it was read with inspiration on air by the actor TYUZ`A Stanislav Boykov. In a word, I very much was glad to what turned out...
I all - did not hire me again. Why? I resolutely understood nothing.
- - your sketch too good, - - explained to me. - Ryzhov is afraid that you having vocational education eventually will scheme against him on the editor-in-chief post...
Passed half a year of life in Novosibirsk, and I still was jobless, uncomfortable, depressive.... And there was a state of emergency.
Volodya Polozayev did not keep also on the lowest point of sliding. To put it briefly, voluntarily died. Became one vacancy on Novosibirsk radio more...
Having waited for decency several days, I came to Vershinin again... there is no
- - Vacancies, - - he unscrupulously told lies.
Ya told nothing to it, and went to regional committee of party and thrust upon reception to the head of department of propaganda and promotion Gerasimov. It, likely, never worked before as the chief at Novosibirsk radio as unlike all acting meanly and lying, taking aside mown from continuous lies an eye, it did not krivodushnichat, and really wanted to help me. Simply speaking, he called Vershinin and ordered that to hire me. I went back to Vertkovskaya. In a corridor met Elmakov.
- - You where preferred to work: at us in Latest news or above in youth broadcasting, he asked me.
- - Of course, in youth, - I did not begin to palter.
- - Here is how time now Vershinin called me and Ryzhov to discuss your employment. If ask me, I will tell that I do not object to your work in the Last news .... And there - as the chairman will solve...
Ya was accepted in a staff of Novosibirsk radio to a position of the correspondent of department Latest news ... To rejoice to the fact that, at last I, (the graduate of MSU whose radio sketches with songs in Czech, deserved favorable reception at listeners in the brotherly socialist country and an excellent assessment of state commission) had an opportunity to stamp notes about performance and an overfulfillment of the plan and to receive for it money, I resolutely could not.
However, in several days I nevertheless was glad to the fact that my work does not demand from me full creative devotion. As found in library of the House of radio the book with a stamp First Siberian broadcasting station also began to collect materials on stories of the Siberian broadcasting...
In the beginning were... points and dash...
On red fronts
the Operational radio report for March 6.
... In the Babruysk district persistent fights continue...
In the Mazyr district go persistent fights under the city of Mazyr and Hugo - zavadny it...
Near Ochakovo - firefight with the French gunboat which opened fire at forts and the city...
" newspaper; Red banner Tomsk, on March 9, 1920.
In 1986 I was sent according to the order for study to Novosibirsk city university of Marxism-Leninism. Occupations took place in one of cases of institute of communication on Kirov. It happened so that having stayed a few listener, I imperceptibly flowed in structure of teachers. Just sometimes the declared occupations broke. That attendees did not miss - and among listeners there were many teachers of institute of communication - I, having shown an initiative, began to retell them history of the Siberian broadcasting.
my listeners were rather erudite that know that Alexander Stepanovich Popov invented the of reception - the transferring device consisting of a test tube with metal powder, the breaker from an electrocall and several connecting wires on May 7 (it if on new style) 1895. *
- - And when, - - I set them question on filling this device appeared in Siberia?
Answers were any, but only not correct.
Correct answer such: this device appeared in Siberia, and is concrete - in Tomsk - in 1896. Also the messmate and Popov`s friend on a fizfaka of the St. Petersburg university Fedor Yakovlevich Kapustin brought it to Siberia. He, Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev`s nephew, was married to the sister of the inventor of radio Augustus Stepanovne Popovoy. And there arrived the couple Kapustinykh to Siberia for the reason that Fedor Yakovlevich was appointed professor of physics of Tomsk university.
* If to be exact, then this day A.S. Popov gave the report on the invention at a meeting of physical office of the Russian physicist - chemical society. And the invention was made earlier.
Kapustin assumed to use Popov`s device for astronomical researches. Subsequently in Tomsk it was formed scientifically - research institute of radiophysics. Imagine: the primitive, but ingenious in principle device became the first step to creation of the largest scientific institution...
One more tricky question. Whether you know that the first-ever army divisions of a radio communication carried names Siberian? Yes, so it also was: It were the first and second Siberian companies of spark telegraph created in 1904, that is, radio telegraph. In 1908 passed army service in one of these companies deployed in Irkutsk and Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bonch - Bruyevich, future inventor of the first domestic radio tube, the designer of the first Soviet broadcasting transmitters gained technical experience.
Further events in electrification of Siberia considerably are directly or indirectly connected with polar researches of A. V. Kolchak.
After its expedition, exclusive on the impudence of implementation, undertaken for the rescue which left on ices searching Sannikov`s Earth the baron E. V. Toll, and also the report on this expedition and the published monograph, the government of Russia and the General sea staff made the decision on continuation of polar researches. For ensuring in the future sea swimming in ices according to Kolchak`s drawings " ice breakers were constructed; Vaygach and Taimyr . Besides on the coast of the Arctic Ocean several stationary radiotelegraphic stations were constructed. Russko`s
- the Japanese war besides other otstalost showed as well the most serious problems in providing suburbs of Russia with a reliable communication. As result - in 1910 the German firm Siemens and Galsk constructed radio stations and on the Pacific coast, in particular, in Petropavlovsk - on - Kamchatka, Nikolaevsk - on - Cupid and on Chukotka. In 1912 radiotelegraphic stations in Okhotsk, are constructed by Gizhige, It is new - the Mariinsky post on the Anadyr River, in Nayakhana. By the end of 1913 of radio station appeared on the island of Vaygach, Yamal Peninsula, on the cape to Mara - Sal. In 1915 there was a radio station on Dickson. Military radio stations were in Omsk, Chita, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok. Harbin, settlement It is lower - Tambov. The staff of the last radio station served as prototypes personazhay Yury Rytkheu`s novel End of Permafrost .
In 1910 - 12 was built the Trans-Siberian radio highway including large reception - the transferring radiotelegraphic stations in Babruysk, Tsarskoye Selo, Kazan, on the Aleksandrovsky hill, Perm, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita, on the Russian island in Vladivostok, Khabarovsk, Gizhige - - for ensuring communication of the government and the Supreme command of the Russian army and fleet with peripheral east regions of the country. Meant that radio stations on a chain will transfer important information one another so that it with guarantee arrived to the military and civil authorities in Siberia and in the Far East. The radio highway organically included also earlier constructed subpolar and Far East radio stations...
the Following steps to radiofikation of Siberia were undertaken after October, 1917 on a personal initiative of Lenin.
To citizens of Russia!
Provisional government is deposed. The government passed to body of Petrograd Council of working and soldier`s deputies, Voyenno - the revolutionary committee which is at the head of the Petrograd proletariat and garrison.
Put for which the people fought: the immediate offer of the democratic world, cancellation of landowner ownership of land, working control over production, creation of the Soviet government - it business is provided.
Long live revolution of workers, soldiers and peasants!
Voyenno - revolutionary committee at Petrograd Council of working and soldier`s deputies
on October 25, 1917 10 h. Mornings
is an appeal signed by Lenin otmorzit in air in day D senior radio telegraphist of the cruiser Aurora Andrey Mikhaylovich Zotkevich. Taking into account time difference on October 26 this radiogramm reached the population in Petropavlovsk - on - Kamchatka and on Chukotka
Ya at all not incidentally gave this fact here. And the name of Zotkevich to us slightly below will meet more than once. But in the beginning one more fact, it seems, not on a subject. Receiving radio information from - for borders was one of problems which was solved by the main Russian radio station which was placed in Tsarskoye Selo. Once at the request of soldier`s committee of Tsarskoye Selo radio station the radio telegraphist Nikolay Romanovich Dozhdikov - (this name to us will meet later too) - brought received from - for granitsets of the radio report in Smolny Lenina. Lenin studied information thanked Dozhdikovaa and asked him and from now on regularly to inform on important news from Paris, Berlin, London. As became up to moving of the government to Moscow. Meanwhile Germans undertook approach to St. Petersburg. The Tsarskoye Selo radio station appeared under the threat of capture. That it not dostaloas to interventionists, its equipment was dismounted and taken away far inland, and the building was blown up.
the defined events began Meanwhile in Novonikolayevsk. I hope, nobody needs to remind that before Novosibirsk so was called. Well and it is fine, just in case.... Lenin called
radio the newspaper without paper and distances ... As historians Lenin testify on March 10, 1918 checked the list of the provincial cities with the indication of the radio stations which are available in them. Lenin noticed that the list is incomplete - and itself entered in it the name of three Siberian cities where by then there were also reception radio stations: Vladivostok, Irkutsk, Tomsk.
Novonikolayevsk was not then the provincial center. But in the early spring of 1918 the reception radiotelegraphic station was established also in it. For its installation and adjustment to the city together with the necessary equipment there arrived experts of a national commissariat of mails and telegraphs Alexander Mikhaylovich Pilanov, Luka Kondratyevich Radkevich, Vasily Fitsev. All of them were the seamen who are written off for the coast - radio telegraphists of the ships of the Baltic Fleet.
Bolshuyu interest in creation of radio station was shown by the first chairman of the New Nikolaev city council Vasily Romanovich Romanov. It helped experts to pick up the room for radio station - in the " hotel building; Central . Its two-storeyed building still in the sixties - - (there at that time was a prosecutor`s office, now this building is absent) - - stood of the last century on the patch between the square Heroes of revolution and an epicure on Krasny Avenue. The receiver was placed in one of rooms of the second floor. The antenna was brought out of a window and fixed on a pipe lokomobilya city power plant - on its place the city hall building is placed now. However the receiver long could not begin to work: its range of frequencies did not coincide with the range of the transferring Hodynsky radio station in Moscow. It was required to reel up the additional coil, and the necessary wire was not. Romanov helped: the wire was requisitioned at the speculator, given to radio operators. On April 10 the station was completely debugged and began to accept radio reports of GROWTH, decrees and resolutions of Council of People`s Commissars, military messages. Every morning Romanov personally came to radio station and took away texts of the deciphered radio reports. At the end of April Pilanov told Romanov that he heard Lenin`s negotiations with the Tashkent commissioner Kobozev at night. The commissioner asked to send to Tashkent the weapon for Red Guards. The received radio reports came to editorial office of the New Nikolaev newspaper Revolution Business . Operational these news were published in it with a mark Radio .
the Receiver in Novonikolayevsk helped to inform the population on political and military events up to occupation of the city of a belochekhama in May, 1918.
Having seized power, white set the mode of cruel terror in Novonikolayevsk. Along with other Bolsheviks - revolutionaries brutally tortured by White Guards Vasily Romanovich Romanov. Poles and Fitsev, suspected of sympathy for Bolsheviks, were discharged from office and left the city. Luka Kondratyevich Radkevich is left white at radio station: someone had to serve it. And information was necessary also to white.
B the garrison of Kolchak soldiers deployed in Novosibirsk, besides other parts and divisions was also a division of radiotelegraphic formations. In other words, radiofikation of Siberia proceeded also at Kolchak.
Military kolchakovsky radio station was placed at that time and in a Tomsk Camp garden. Under windows of radio station of the boy played soccer. One of them, Sasha Balakshin, glanced in a window and became interested in what was seen. The soldier liked the fellow clever in appearance, he invited him inside, explained the principle of action of radio station, showed how work at a key. The boy was the engineer`s son. The father was engaged with the boy much, developing his abilities. To Sasha did not make big work to understand the structure of radio station. Very quickly he learned to work at a key and conceived to construct own radio station.
In the same time through Tomsk passed, moving purposefully on the East, the engineer Vladimir Kozmich Zvorykin. With the Bolshevism, as well as kolchakovsky totalitarianism he resolutely did not get on together. He made the decision to emigrate. In Tomsk stopped by on the way to the Far East to meet finally friends. There are certificates that he visited radio station in the Camp garden. Perhaps, it is even very probable that the meeting of these two people nevertheless took place. Zvorykin moved further on the East. Then by steamship emigrated to the USA where it should invent two years later system of modern erektronny television...
A Sasha Balakshin for a start became the first radio fan of Siberia. In the beginning he built the radio receiver, and then and the transmitter. But to this character of our narration we will come back a little later.
At retreat... White Guards entirely evacuated p - t - establishments on the East, destroying not poddabshchiyesya to a fast uvoz, threw property the road which broke, distorted and came to full worthlessness. Together with establishments also employees were taken away.... In it approximately a look got in inheritance of the Soviet power in Siberia cable, telefonnaf. Radiotelegraphic and mail service... In the districts freed from a kolchakovshchina there was a feverish work on opening of the evacuated establishments and search of the property which is taken away white and thrown by part on the way of retreat. It is returned on places to 300 establishments * to
* From the report of an authorized national commissariat of mails and telegraphs on Siberia in Sibrevky. The document is dated on November 20, 1920. GANO, t. 1, op. 1, 219, l. 229
After liberation of Novonikolayevsk Luka Kondratyevich Radkevich entered Red Army and went east in the ranks of the coming red troops further. The radio station thus was left without service personnel. Reported on it on Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukher. The outstanding military leader after release of the city was appointed the chief of the New Nikolaev garrison. He understood how it is important to receive operational broadcast messages. On January 10, 1920 Blyukher disposed to find in parts of garrison of radio telegraphists and to attach them to the New Nikolaev reception radio station.
Soon in one of military units was found the radio telegraphist Yakov Troshin. And revky the cities of the Taiga sent radio telegraphists Vladimir Dorofeyev and Mikhail Svidersky to Novonikolayevsk. And in the " newspaper; Revolution Business again there were notes from Moscow, Verkhneudinsk, from - for a zranitsa with a mark Radio .
the Main events of public life in the country, namely war against troops of the Supreme governor, occurred at that time in Siberia. Principal organ of the power of Siberia was Sibrevk. Predsovngarkoma Lenina it was represented paramount to have the constant reliable bilateral power with Sibrevkom. Therefore he insisted on construction powerful Siberian reception - the transferring radio station in the place of dislocation of Sibrevkom. First Sibrevk took place in Chelyabinsk - the radio station began to be built in this city. Then Sibrevk moved to Omsk. Construction in Chelyabinsk was stopped, threw the equipment to the city on Irtysh, began to be built here. Meanwhile the Red army continued approach to the East, Novonikolayevsk was freed. The radio station began to be built here.
Then - that on Ob arrived to the city and headed construction powerful reception - the transferring radio station the former radio operator of the cruiser Aurora Andrey Mikhaylovich Zotkevich.
B Novosibirsk movie theater Aurora in the eighties the photostand created with my participation devoted to Andrey Mikhaylovich Zotkevich froze up. On it there was a portrait of the gallant guy in a sailor`s form with dandyish short moustaches, a photocopy of my article about Zotkevich published in the Novosibirsk newspaper, the photo of the personal belongings belonging to Zotkevich: compass, ruler... There were I then on a visit and at the son of the avrorovsky radio operator - the geologist`s candidate - mineralogical sciences of Innokenti Andreevich Zotkevich... by
In the cozy apartment of the usual Novosibirsk nine-storey building near the square of Kalinin the elderly thin person met me. Preparing for conversation, it laid out on a table the family wealth - several ancient objects, sokhranennykhkh in memory of the father.
- - the father was authorized In the beginning on construction of radio station here. There is a document where this his position is specified. And then already became zavradio. The radio station was under construction in the territory adjoining the station Novosibirsk - Southern. Earlier it was the Altai station. Approximately where the recreation center of Popov - slightly higher and more to the right is located. The equipment was placed in several wooden buildings and one stone. Structures of radio station were stood till the end before the war. The boy I ran in these parts. And well knew that these buildings were built by the father. In the stone building the power plant providing radio station with energy was placed.... The father actively participated in public life, was the deputy of the City Council....
the Course of building of reception - the transferring radio station controlled department of mails and telegraphs Sibrevkoma, Sibpochtel. More particularly - Sibpochtel`s radio department. And here Nikolay Romanovich Dozhdikov, the former radio operator of Tsarskoye Selo radio station managed radio department. During visits on new New Nikolaev radio station it had to be pleasant to it to see knots and units of Tsarskoye Selo station here. Slightly above I told already that being afraid of occupation of Tsarskoye Selo radio station by Germans, the experts working at it dismounted the equipment and sent it far inland. It was not gone, and just and was used at construction powerful Siberian reception - the transferring radio station.
In the first issue of the magazine Siberian " fires; for 1922 the emotional and bright sketch of Nikolay Romanovich Dozhdikov " is placed; Radio. History of its development . The editor-in-chief of the magazine Yemelyan Yaroslavsky presented Lenina and Krupskaya according to one number. While in the Kremlin there was a museum - the apartment Lenina, this issue of the magazine " also was stored in its library; Siberian " fires;...
In February, 1921 on an ogromnoterritoriya of Western Siberia - from the Urals almost to Omsk, from Kazakhstan in the south to the northern tundra flashed the anti-Bolshevist mutiny known under a name of Petropavlovsko - Ishimsky. Rebels destroyed thousands of communists and sovetskikh workers, cut railway communication of Siberia with the center. It was interrupted and telegrafno - telecommunication. Communication was carried out only on radio. And in accordance with the circumstances the role of the main communication center was assumed by radio station of the city of Obdorsk (now - Salekhard). The Obdorsky radio station communicated with Moscow, Chelyabinsk, radio stations on Dickson and in the Far East. Radio operators are the former seamen - Baltic Fleet sailors in two months of the round-the-clock watch accepted, deciphered, reported to destination and sent thousands of radiogramms addressed to command of Red army, heads of party and Soviet bodies to air.
In March, broken by Red army near Tyumen, Tobolsk, Ishim, rebels moved on the North, to Obdorsku. Occupation of radio station was their purpose, in particular. At this last boundary party and Soviet workers of Samarov and Obdorsk (The Khanty - Mansiysk and Salekhard) - several hundreds of fighters heroically battled against superior forces of the opponent. Battling with the last bit of strength, defenders of the city managed to air three radiogramms that they perish, but do not give up...
we Will return however to Novosibirsk. Twenty years ago, when I prepared a program cycle to 60 - to the anniversary of Novosibirsk radio, I, fortunately, still had an opportunity to meet certain veterans of a radiofikation and broadcasting. They told me many details concerning powerful reception - the transmitting station. As a result began to seem to me that I was present at its construction and personally saw everything.
One of those who told me about the passed years long ago was Mikhail Petrovich Verbitsky. The person of an old school, the former seaman, however, not Baltic, but Pacific, passed through GULAG, he, nevertheless, kept, despite more than eighty years, excellent memory, a lucidity of mind, strength of mind. And fidelity professional, radistsky, to a brotherhood... He told Zotkevich, Sheptunov, Voronov`s names, the companions serving together with it on powerful reception - the transmitting station, told, about the radio station, about how on it work was organized...
- - Radio telegraphists lived, mainly, in the hostel on Bolshevistskaya Street. Directly in the hostel we organized collection point for radiogramms from - for borders. In the hostel there was all equipment and from there the antenna lasted, rose by a factory pipe which was 60 meters high... The antenna was two hundred meters long. Perfectly heard America, Philippines, the European countries: Nauen`s radio station (it near Berlin), London, Paris, Tokyo.... We transferred all this material to Sibrost, and they already - in Soviet Siberia .... Then, reading the newspaper, we learned the radiogramms. And radio reports from Moscow were accepted in the certain placement directly on radio stations.... Mikhail Petrovich`s Colleague Ivan Andreevich Voronov left to
hand-written memoirs about New Nikolaev powerful reception - the transferring radio station.
... The radio station was constructed in 1921. It was nominated the new Nikolaev powerful dugova radio station. On Zmeinogorskaya Street near the Altai station the zasypny barrack-type placement to 3 rooms was built. In the first room it was established batareyno - the accumulator equipment consisting of two batteries for power supply of the anodes assembled from zhlemnt meydinger and several six-volt acid accumulators. The second room was a reception. The reception equipment consisted the izodny detector RGS receiver - 5 and the three-lamp STP amplifier on the French lamps.
In the third room was installed the equipment of the sending device consisting of a power board and the 35 kilowatts arc generator. the Territory of radio station took with
by the sizes six city quarters on which 4 timbered towers 106 meters high were established. The delays holding masts were twisted by staff forces from 6 mm of a steel wire. The lifting fala and fala holding the antenna were enkovy. Masts were with nine-meter yards on which the " antenna was suspended; two-sausage everyone " sausage; had 8 beams attached to rings. Material of the antenna was 6 - mm copper kanatik. The lengthening coil was produced on site: the pair telephone cable was reeled up on a wooden framework (200 rounds)...
Ate radio station from own power plant consisting of the old engine which was allocated to us by the railroad and a dynamo - cars of a direct current in 500 volts... The premises of radio station were lit with the electric power only in business hours of the arc generator, the rest of the time lighting was from erosinovy lamps....
was Especially heavy to the radio operators conducting reception in the afternoon. Audibility was so bad that reception was prevented by flies. The big fly will fly and buzzes... Radio operators in such cases on the top of earphones put on later a cap or the head tied with a towel. At night air was so pure that we on the detector receiver with barakhlyany, and for those times - good - the three-lamp amplifier took all stations of the Soviet Union, and for cable agency TASS took Paris, Bordeaux, Lifeld, London and it is a lot of other stations...
Arc radio station was mounted and served by staff from the former sailors of the different fighting ships of the Baltic Fleet. All of them were participants of revolution of 1917. It were people of special way. They had sacred laws on discipline and work.
For maintenance of a gas interval was entered into an arc chamber alcohol - rectificate via the special spirit relays adjusted manually. One liter of alcohol an hour was spent. Kmamer it was purged by alcohol too. During the work on a short distance alcohol was saved due to decrease in a mozhnost. To consider economy the duty mechanic had no opportunity, nobody tried to consider as people always were sober and there was no drunk...
I do not know, whether the truth what to me was told once with a smile by Mikhail Petrovich. Anyway a plot entertaining and worthy that here to give it.
Happened it in the twentieth year. The radio operator of one of reception stations kept watch, listened attentively to short and lingering signals in earphones, habitually transferring them to letters and writing down the text of the accepted information in the magazine....
Suddenly this chain of signals was interrupted also in earphones loudly and distinctly the human voice sounded...
the Radio operator rejected away earphones and with shout:
- - the Devil, the devil on air! -
rushed away from a pomnshcheniye...
Owning most pethe private on that time a technical profession, was he a person not really educated and low-informed - - did not look in newspapers. And newspapers of those years already reported about the experiments on a speech transmission made by the Nizhny Novgorod radio laboratory on distance without wires....
Mikhail Petrovich Verbitsky confirmed that on Siberian powerful reception - the transferring radio station those days when the Nizhny Novgorod radio laboratory made experiments on radio telephony, special watches on reception of these voice transfers were appointed. Reports on that how accurate and clear was the audibility of voice transfers went to Nizhny Novgorod. Prompt rates the radio telephony era, a broadcasting era came.
in Novonikolayevsk listened on September 17, 1922 to a radio concert. He was given by the Central radiotelephone station in Moscow. The Russian music (Tchaikovsky, Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov) was executed on air. On air the voice of the outstanding singer Nadezhda Andreevna Obukhova sounded. In a concert also the flutist Larin and the violinist Sibor acted.
Similar concerts began to sound rather regularly since September, 1923. There was a huge interest in broadcasts and a radio amateurism at the population: at clubs, schools, in higher education institutions radio circles began to open, the " radio receiver appeared; Kristadin designed by the engineer Losev. The device made a splash: it was compact, convenient and rather simple, it could use without special technical training. Besides it was calculated on work not only in public places, but also in house conditions. And production of the elementary detector receivers became in general general hobby. Also it is old and small, having put on earphones, were picked by a delay a kristallika of lead gloss, trying to grope the necessary point. And when it worked well, in earphones there was the announcer`s voice, or music sounded - there was a magic. .
Magic of radio continues - - and I want to wish to my young colleagues of inspirations and kind curiosity how their predecessors worked: the right, there were no they as it is represented sometimes to young people complete fools and at them, those who were earlier much can learn if, certainly, to allow itself work to rummage in archives...