When in old times turned out the fright? Day of Gerasim - a grachevnik of
on March 17 according to a national calendar the day of Gerasim is celebrated - a grachevnik is the only day in a year when on the Russian national belief it is possible to turn out an evil ghost - the fright, still known in the people as a kikimra, a kukimor, a kikimorka, a shishimor, a shmyshka, igon.
According to a church calendar it is day of memory of the Reverend Gerasim from Lycia and the Reverend Gerasim - the first Vologda wonder-worker. This holiday in Russia coincided with time of an arrival of rooks therefore received such national name - day of Gerasim - a grachevnik. About this day there was a belief: “ Gerasim - a rook grachevnik to Russia will return, and from sacred Russia will expel the fright “ .
A belief call any taken roots opinion in the people which is handed down and taken on trust, without proofs. The Russian beliefs were both true, and false which are called superstitions. Beliefs in old times treated very seriously, especially those which lived in the people many centuries, having arisen at the time of pagan Russia. Stories about various mysterious beings - brownies, mermaids, wood goblins, frights were the most widespread beliefs. And, it were beliefs, but not superstitions as in old times many people were ready to swear that they personally talked to the brownie, and in the wood met the wood goblin.
The fright - one of kinds of the brownie of an Old Russian belief. It was presented in the form of the dwarf or the little woman. If it was represented in the form of the woman, then her head was small, about a thimble, and a body thin as a straw. Her appearance was ugly, the clothes - are careless and slovenly. If represented in the form of the dwarf, then it is obligatory with eyes of different flowers: one for a malefice, another for leprosy . Less often the fright girls with a long braid, nude or in a shirt depicted.
Sometimes the fright was considered as the wife of the brownie and when he left the house, its duty to look after economy was assigned to her. Also the fright called also the wife of the wood goblin - called her leshachikhy or the fright marsh. It was represented in image of the little hunched old woman. Here such variety of an image of the fright is presented in Old Russian beliefs.
Word “ fright “ - difficult also consists of two parts. “ Kiki “ - matters “ shout “ and “ pestilence “ - a name of an Old Slavic evil ghost of Mary (Mora) close according to the description and the qualities to the fright. It is one of versions of an origin of the word “ fright “.
Rusich believed that the fright is sent by people bad, bearing hosts the malice. It could “ to fill “ at construction of the house carpenters or stove-setters. Enclosed it to the house secretly in the form of a figure of the doll made of chips and rags why over time in the house the fright was brought. But the fright could be brought and itself, such house called unsuccessful.
She lived in the house behind an oven, was engaged in spinning and weaving in the afternoon, and at night began to misbehave. Bill ware, stamped legs, scattered things, but next morning owners found all things on the places in an integrity and safety. Still she liked to annoy owners the rustling, we howl, we cry, preventing to sleep and to soil a pet, cutting off at them wool, and pulling out feathers birds.
In old times was considered that if the fright showed the face, then it is worth waiting for trouble in the house. It was a harbinger of death someone from family members.
Frights were not loved and tried to get rid of them in any ways that was extremely difficult. Just on Gerasim - day was considered that they became silent and harmless, and then they could be turned out. In other days people were protected from the fright by means of prayers and charms.
As the best charm from the fright that she did not get accustomed in the house, served “ chicken god “ - a stone with the natural opening created by the nature. Also used a neck from the broken jug with a rag of red fabric which was hung up over a chicken perch that the fright did not torment birds.
The fright of a juniper which branches hanged out on all house is afraid, especially carefully protecting saltcellars with salt that at night she did not spill out salt which in old times cost very much. And if the fright annoyed a ware roar, then it was necessary to wash up it water, infused on a fern.
At exile of the fright the sorcerer who turned out her used special plot:
Leave you, the fright - house of a goryunin of the house,
but not that will lift up you red-hot rods,
will burn fire - polymy,
will fill in with black pitch.
Word my firm. Amen. for
It is obligatory in the house it was necessary to find a doll or a foreign subject by means of which sent the fright on a family. This subject should have been taken out accurately from the house and to throw out, and it is the best of all to burn. Still there is a sign that if the person wants to do another harm, then leaves the exorcized subject in his house and to remove damage, it is necessary to get rid of this subject.
On national beliefs if in the house to sweep the floors a broom from a wormwood, then the evil spirit will not be turned on including the fright. At the heart of a belief - the relation to a wormwood as to one of charms. In the people was considered that the pungent smell of this grass frightens off evil spirit and angry people.
Beliefs in life of the Russian people played a large role, they reflected life, culture and traditions of that time. From these ancient Slavic beliefs lived the offensive nickname " up to now; fright “ so call the careless, ugly dressed woman.