Why the Danish astronomer had a gold nose? Short digression to history of rhinoplasty
the Nose decorates a human face. It is impossible to argue with it. Even if its form contradicts the conventional canons of beauty. How so, you, even ask the humpbacked noses hanging a hook? Or, on the contrary, hitched up as piggy patches “ pipk “? Yes, of course! Try to imagine the person in general without nose, and then you surely agree with the statement that the nose decorates a human face.
The modern surgery does not leave chances to see the face disfigured by lack of a nose. Besides, it is capable to relieve everyone from “ hooks “ and “ patches “. It is so successful that rhinoplasty (surgery in a nose) is perceived by many, first of all, as esthetic surgery.
However there was rhinoplasty in ancient times as the help unfortunate, lost a nose. In India for several honeycombs of years B.C. to the soldier won battle was to chop off a nose enough for life to doom him to a shame and humiliation. The Indian priests learned to fix the crippled faces, replacing part of skin from the victim`s forehead. This art was well not much and was perceived as magic action.
Secrets of the Indian priests overcame borders of Europe only in the Middle Ages thanks to a dynasty of the Italian doctors Braminov. Followers “ Indian " methods; kept secret of restoration of a nose not less carefully. With death of the last representative of a dynasty “ " method; sank into a non-existence.
The Danish astronomer Tikho was not lucky Braga. He was born much later, than the last from Braminov died. And slightly earlier, than Italian Gaspar Tallacozzi reproduced a surgical way of restoration of a nose in the “ Italic " method; - by skin transplantation from a shoulder. History as a result of which still the young Dane Tikho to Braga lost so significant part of the person is very ridiculous. He did not battle on the battlefield and was not subject to a heavy illness, and lost the nose on duel with the fellow countryman Manderup Parsbjerg.
A certain mathematical problem which solution, finally, was found everything - peacefully became the reason of quarrel of two students. But during an honor duel the opponent in casual blow of a sword cut off to future great astronomer part of a nose. During all further life metal Tikho Brage replaced the lost flesh - it was forced to carry an artificial limb, and in a pocket a box with ointment by which fixed the " from time to time; precious “ a nose that that did not fall off in the most improper time.
Perhaps, this circumstance promoted that Tikho Brage devoted the life to science as to it, the representative of very influential and noble surname, with such physical defect it was necessary to avoid idle pastime in the companies of illustrious grandees.
Italian Gaspar Tallacozzi in the field of plastic surgery achieved considerable scientific success too. However finished the course of life it is deplorable. The church rejected Tallacozzi`s researches so categorically that after death he was buried in the unconsecrated earth. Forbidden Italian and forgotten Indian “ " methods; revived in the 19th century at the time of Napoleonic wars thanks to the German surgeon Karl Gref. Actually emergence of the term “ rhinoplasty “ the medicine is obliged to doctor Grefe who entered his the first as derivative of the Latin words “ rhin “ (nose) and “ plassen “ (plasticity).
The subsequent period of development of rhinoplasty can be considered prompt. At the end of the 19th century the first operation which had character of esthetic surgery was performed. But long time still the problem of the restoration lost, but not adjustment available remained the real scientific problem. In the 20th century it was made many experiments which allowed in comparison with ancient “ by " methods; it is essential to promote in this direction. Surgeons - rinoplasta were anxious with search of the materials capable to replace cartilaginous and bone tissues of a nose. And it is natural as the techniques applied before were only in skin transplantation from various parts of the body instead of the absent nose that did not allow to reconstruct it “ skeleton “. It is unlikely by means of soft skin fabrics the Indian priests and the Italian doctors managed to restore completely a nose of the person in the form in which it looks naturally. Development of technologies pushed researchers to search of opportunities of use of implants, that is the alien bodies implanted in fabric.
What only surgeons as plastic material - a stone, glass, porcelain, amber did not try to apply materials. For restoration of a nose stainless steel, aluminum and precious metals was used. As soon as polymers declared themselves as alternative to many natural materials, plastic surgeons also did not fail to test their properties. But, despite all efforts, implants did not satisfy either surgeons, or their patients - the foreign matter did not grow, and was only surrounded with connecting fabrics and skin and therefore remained mobile. Besides, over time implant sometimes “ broke “ through the thinned skin or mucous. And repeated operations were too difficult and the more so did not allow to reach the necessary effect. Throughout the 20th century recovery rhinoplasty filled up medical science much new yielded and results. However ideal material was not found.
Modern recovery rhinoplasty is guided by primary use of organic transplants - cartilaginous and bone tissues which undertake directly at the person or at the donor. But sometimes it is not possible to avoid use of artificial materials. Scientists developed the compounds of some mineral substances possessing biocompatibility with tissues of the person which are a basis of an inorganic matriks of solid fabrics. The future of rhinoplasty contacts an opportunity to grow up the patient`s tissues from the donor cages placed in special conditions. If Tikho Brage lost the nose in the 21st century, perhaps, it would have a chance to grow up new. But presently nobody battles on duel on swords …
of Yuli Ivanov