When celebrate the Day of the surveyor - the cartographer? Whether
we Can imagine modern life without map or at least the detailed tourist scheme? Of course, no! Preparing for travel to new places - to the cities, or to look at wonderful natural corners what we take first of all? Card! At me as big lover of travel, the big collection of various cards and atlases of the different countries and cities for many years collected. And the big world map always hangs on a wall of my room. As though reference book near at hand. Therefore it is pleasant to me that among many professional holidays in our country there is also such - Day of workers of geodesy and cartography of Russia which is celebrated on the second Sunday of March, i.e. in 2009 it on March 8, coincides with Women`s Day. Geodesy, topography, cartography - all this sciences thanks to which we have cards, atlases, plans of the cities, etc.
This holiday is established by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 11, 2000. Date of a holiday is chosen because in March, 1720 Peter I signed the decree which laid the foundation to mapping photography in the Russian Empire. In general the card is the satellite of mankind since the most ancient times. The elementary cartographical drawings were known already in the conditions of primitive society, even before writing origin. It is confirmed by primitive cartographical images at different ancient nationalities. The drawings executed on a tree, bark and other improvised materials, which were quite often differing in big credibility served for the indication of ways of movements, places of hunting, etc. In general quantity of modern finds of ancient cards, thanks to excavation, rather extensively. So, near the town of Katalkhyuk (other writing Chats Guyuk) the card executed on a wall of the ancient house which is carried to the period of 6000 years BC is found. Cards of Dvurechya - Entre Rios of Tiber and Euphrates are known, the Babylon, Sumer, created more than 3000 years BC of
In Russia systematic development of cartography began only at the end of the 15th century, with elimination of feudal dissociation and creation of the uniform centralized state. In the country the urgent need in creation of detailed maps and studying of the territory, as well as nearby lands began to be felt. It was entrusted to the sluzhily people to make drawings and descriptions of the new or visited lands working at suburbs, and also to all embassies going to others countries. The shootings which are carried out by them were primitive. Orientation over the countries of light and calculation of distances for time of the movement served as the only means for drawing up the card. Often similar drawings were consolidated to the image of the cities with the districts relating to them.
Most quickly the cartography began to develop in the period of Ivan the Terrible`s government when thanks to active foreign policy, especially in connection with Livonsky war and a gain of the Kazan kingdom, the set of cards - " was created; drawings “ as they were called then. According to its instruction it was made “ Big Drawing to all Moscow state “ about about 1552 (about 1600 was redrawn, updated owing to a wear-out). It contained the full set of geographical and ethnographic data on Russia and the neighboring states known for that time, covered the territory from Dnieper and the Western Dvina in the West to Ob in the east, from Lapland in the north, to the Crimea, Georgia and Bukhara in the south. In addition to the drawing, for military reasons, the drawing on roads from Moscow to the Crimea, and also maps of important districts in the doubled scale was made. The majority of the documents relating to “ To the Big drawing “ as well as he, did not remain. But in 1627 in the Digit order it was created “ Book to the Big drawing “ (the author, Afanasy Mezentsev is known). It consists of the prolog and the main - the detailed description of the lost map of the Russian state including all inscriptions and graphic materials which were available on the card. “ Book of the Big drawing “ is a valuable historical source, reached us in numerous reprintings.
Only in 1720, under Peter I`s decree, the foundation to full geodetic and cartographical works was laid. For shootings of the district directed naval officers and military surveyors, for the edition of cards wrote out from - for borders of engravers. All materials were going to the Senate. Already in 1745, thanks to the secretary of the Senate I. Kirillov the First geographical atlas of Russia from 19 cards was published. Later drawing up and the edition of cards passed into Academy of Sciences. At Paul I drawing up cards was transferred to military department, and at Alexander I is subordinated to the General staff at which in 1822 founded the case of military topographers.
At Nicholas I the multisheet trekhverstny topographic map of the western provinces was made. At Alexander the second - the desyativerstny card of the European part of the Empire. There were private cartographic activities. Lack of the uniform centralized system, of course, led to an unproductive waste of time, forces and means. Centralization of all geodetic and cartographical works happened after Revolution.
was founded on March 15, 1919 by the decree of Council of People`s Commissars the Highest Geodetic Management (HGM) which activity extended to all areas of RSFSR. Since 1992 it is Federal service of geodesy and cartography of Russia.
For certain much had to see people with a theodolite or a level on streets of our cities and villages. I, during study at university, even had to make educational shooting of the district, to make a topographic map of a site. We during practice even had a song of topographers on motive “ The sphere blue … " Turns, spins;. We sang:
“ The theodolite Turns, spins,
Turns, spins, a limb creaks,
Turns, spins - the corner gives,
For two minutes it all - lies …
Ya the mikrometrenny screw turned
Ya one eye in a pipe glanced,
I See on a hill where the linden blossoms,
the Girl in a white dress goes
MiG I fell in love with the girl that,
Otfokusiroval at speed a pipe,
I admired I the girl of that,
is Only a pity that headfirst “.
Work of cartographers and surveyors interesting, but difficult. How many it is necessary to them not only to walk on the ground, but also to process field results to make the good, detailed map!
Now, of course, all differently. Satellites allow us on the Internet, without leaving the house, not only to receive the card, even the plan of the right place, but also the detailed location map to it. But still all have such opportunity not, especially in Russia. And the profession of the surveyor, cartographer still remains very necessary and demanded.
We will wish them good luck and success in affairs!