Who is Robinson Crusoe`s prototype?
Robinson Crusoe from the adventure book of Daniel Defoe - not an invention. The actual fact is the cornerstone of this book. The island Mas - and - Tyerra that belongs to the republic of Chile, is and there is the well-known island of Robinson Crusoe. the Climate of this island is rather soft
, temperature from +12 to +19 degrees for all year. The dense wood grows in mountain part of the island, below the earth is covered with palm groves and thickets of a fern. On this island 5 years the Scottish seaman Alexander Selkirk all alone lived.
... He was born in 1678 in the small Scottish settlement of the Largo, in a family of the poor shoemaker John Selkrega. When the guy was 19 years old, he changed the surname and left the house as continuous quarrels with the father and the brother haunted it. The young man went to work as the sailor for English military fleet. He swam by the seas and oceans much, took part in sea fights. When the famous pirate, the captain Damper, recruited seamen in the team, Alexander Selkirk joined them. Later it got to team to the captain of other frigate - Pikkeringu. After a while Pikkering died and his place was taken by Stredling, and Alexander Selkirk who was the capable seaman became the assistant to the new captain.
In May, 1704 the piracy ship from - for the damages put with a storm was forced to anchor near the island Mas - and - Tyerra. Between the captain and Selkirk there is a quarrel as a result of which the captain orders to land the assistant on the island, having left it the gun, gunpowder, bullets, the axe, a telescope, a blanket and tobacco. At first Selkirk captured despair, sleepless nights and hunger pushed him to suicide. But, having overcome itself, Alexander built to himself the dwelling and moved off deep into islands in searches of food. The plant and animal life of the island was various and rich.
Alexander Selkirk began to be engaged in fishery, hunted sea turtles, tamed wild goats and wild cats who were on the island. As in the Stone Age, it extracted fire friction, did clothes of leather of goats, using a nail instead of a needle. Besides Selkirk made to himself a calendar. So he lived five years on the deserted island.
On February 2, 1709 the Scottish seaman Alexander Selkirk was found by the English warship. Sailors saw the overgrown person with long hair and a beard, the clothes at him were sewed from leather of goats. At first Alexander could utter only inarticulate sounds and only in several weeks, having come round, managed to tell the story. It became clear later that the ship which captain left it on the deserted island got to a storm and almost all team died.
In 1712 there was Woods`s book of Rogers “ Industrial swimming round the world “ in which it was told about Alexander Selkirk`s life on the desert island. A little later Alexander Selkirk himself wrote the book which is called “ Intervention of providence, or the unusual description of adventures of Alexander Selkirk written by his own hand “ but this book did not become popular. And Daniel Defoe`s book which appeared in 1719 under the name “ Life and unusual adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Robinson from York which lived 28 years on the deserted island “ got the world glory, readers learned in the fictional character " at once; Robinson “ from the island Mas - and - Tyerra.
Daniel Defoe confirmed more than once the fact that he met Selkirk and used his history in the book. In the preface to the first edition of the book D. Defoe wrote about Robinson: “ Still still among us there is a person whose life formed a basis of this book “. The government of the republic of Chile renamed the island Mas - and - Tyerr on whom Selkirk spent five years of the life, to Selkirk`s island. In the Scottish settlement of the Largo where Alexander Selkirk was born, delivered it a monument.
Alexander Selkirk was not the first “ Robinson “ on the deserted island Mas - and - Tyerra. His predecessor - Juan - Fernandez, lived several years here, he left here goats who so were useful to Alexander Selkirk, they gave it meat, milk and skin for clothes. (1680 - 1685) the black seaman who escaped from the sunk ship lived five years on this island. In 1687 the captain Davies left on the island of 9 sailors, so he decided to teach a good lesson them for gambling in a bone. The captain provided them with food and all necessary for life, sailors did not grieve at all, and it is rather on the contrary, they had a lot of free time for dicing now, than and were engaged all the free time. As they had no money, inventive sailors divided the territory of the island among themselves and played on the earth. Seamen left the island in three years though they had many opportunities to make it earlier. In 14 years after them on this island “ lodged “ Alexander Selkirk.
After it on the island long time pirates, deserters from the English frigate disappeared. Spaniards suited here a colony which died from an earthquake. In 1750 the prison for the Chilean patriots who fought for independence of the country was located here. Later the government of Chile sent here in the reference of political opponents. In 1855 the cannery worked at the island even. During World War II near the island the German and Japanese submarines disappeared. And the American firm constructed on the island “ Robinson “ hotel for tourists.