How we learn the world?
Reflection by the person of all variety of objects and phenomena of world around are a knowledge of objective reality. By means of reflection of people learns about various properties of surrounding objects and phenomena - to their form, size, volume, proportions, color, a spatial arrangement etc.
the Mental processes representing peculiar forms of reflection are shown in active communication of the person with reality, in the course of his activity.
They include the phenomena connected with direct cognitive activity - feelings, perception, memory, thinking, imagination.
I think - means, I exist! All of us know this well-known phrase of French of mathematics of Rene Descartes. Our brain everyone second makes more than 100 thousand computing operations. Flows of information arrive every second from all sense organs.
Most of all information to our brain comes from organs of vision (about 80%). From live contemplation of people passes to abstract thinking and from it to practice - such is a dialectic way of knowledge of truth, knowledge of subjective reality.
Origin of thought is always preceded by feeling!
the Feeling is the elementary mental process consisting in reflection of separate properties of objects and phenomena of a material world, and also internal states of an organism at direct impact of material irritants on the corresponding receptors.
the Physiological basis of feelings - difficult activity of sense organs which I. P. Pavlov called analizatorny.
Depending on specifics of the accepted signals distinguish the following analyzers:
external - visual, acoustical, tactile, painful, temperature, olfactory, flavoring;
internal - pressure, kinesteticheskiya, vestibular;
special - the bodies located in internals and cavities.
Human sense organs - the devices working with a surprising subtlety. So, a human eye can distinguish a light signal in 1/1000 candles at kilometer distance. At the same time, various sense organs supplying to us the information on a condition of the outside world surrounding us can be more or to exchange are sensitive to the displayed phenomena with a bigger or smaller accuracy. Sensitivity is closely connected with irritant force.
Dependence of intensity of feeling at most of an irritant is expressed in the form of the basic psychophysical law (Weber`s law - Fekhnera):
S = klnJ + c,
where S - intensity of feeling; J - irritant force, with - constants. According to this law, intensity of feeling is directly proportional to an irritant force logarithm.
Not all irritations cause feelings. The minimum size of an irritant at which for the first time there is a feeling is called an absolute, or lower threshold of feeling.
call a distinction threshold the Smallest change of force of an irritant which can be recorded by this sense organ.
Sensitivity of our sense organs can change also in very big limits. This variability depends on environmental conditions, and from a row internal (physiological and psychological) conditions, installations of the subject etc.
are Distinguished by two main forms of variability of sensitivity from which one depends on conditions of the environment and is called adaptation, and another from conditions of a condition of an organism and is called a sensitization.
Adaptation - analyzer adaptation to an irritant. It is known that in the dark our sight becomes aggravated, and at strong lighting its sensitivity decreases. It can be observed upon transition from darkness to light. In the first case of eyes of the person begins to test gripes, the person temporarily “ grows blind “. Some time that eyes adapted to bright lighting is required. In the second case the return phenomenon is observed. The person who entered the dark room from brightly lit room needs 20 - 30 minutes that he began to be guided rather well in the dark. Sensitivity of an eye upon transition from bright illumination to darkness becomes aggravated by 20 000 times.
The sensitization is an increase of sensitivity as a result of interaction of analyzers and exercise. For example, sensitivity of the visual analyzer changes under the influence of an acoustical irritant. So weak sound irritants increase color sensitivity of the visual analyzer. At the same time sharp deterioration in distinctive sensitivity of an eye when as an acoustical irritant loud noise is applied is observed.
Knowing regularities of change of sensitivity of sense organs, it is possible by use in a special way of the picked-up collateral irritants to sensibilize this or that receptor, i.e. to increase its sensitivity.
Change of sensitivity depends also on such factors as age, the type of nervous system, endocrine balance of an organism, exhaustion degree etc. of
of People lives not in the world of the isolated light or color spots, sounds or touches, and among things, objects and forms, i.e. steadily deals not with separate feelings, and with the complete images received as a result of perception.