Ivanovo. As the Russian Manchester became “ city of brides “?
Manchester - as it is known, the world center of trade in cotton fabrics. In Manchester the prices of fabric and a yarn historically were established. Therefore textile areas worldwide often call on the English firstborn - the main textile center of England: there is the German Manchester (Chemnitz), the Polish Manchester (Lodz) etc. of
the Russian Manchester Ivanovo is, naturally, (more faithful to Ivanovo - Voznesensk). In here at the end of the 17th century there were first linen and cotton-printing manufactories.
At the beginning of the 18th century the circle of the peasants and handicraftsmen who were engaged in lnotkatsky production there were region`s first businessmen - the enterprising people who managed to open own manufactories, being engaged in production of a heel-tap (that is drawing drawing to linen fabric). By the end 80 - x years of the 18th century in the village of Ivanovo worked already 226 naboyechny “ log huts “ in which the heel-tap by paints on a canvas and muslin was made.
And it is interesting that only in 73 “ log huts “ the heel-tap was made only by forces of the family. In the majority of workshops the hired labor was used that turned them from households into the real capitalist workshops.
However the Ivanovo textile industry was not " so far; ahead of the planet of all “. There were at least two more large centers for production of fabrics - Moscow and St. Petersburg. But everything was changed by war. In 1812 Moscow captured by French burned down, and all its industry fell into decay. Then - that village of Ivanovo also became the center of naboyny production.
The famous Ivanovo manufacturer and the businessman Yakov Garelin remembered: “ All factory turns and activity of the Moscow factories passed at that time to the Ivanovo manufacturers. The works which are made at local factories day and night increased production unreasonably; printers earned then up to 100 rubles a month, not too burdening themselves with work. At this time the printer nothing - constrained neither accuracy in stuffing, nor the accuracy of observance of a rapport in the drawings “. So that`s that.
By the way, for inquisitive: production of sitets called then pottery (as paints from zakrepa in ordinary pots were ready), and producers of those sitets - gorshechnik. From these is that gorshechnik subsequently and there were solid manufacturers.
“ Process of transition was made so, - Yakov Garelin remembered, - the diligent and dexterous printer by means of the small family, for example, the wife and two sons, could prepare up to 20 pieces of sitets a day, i.e. fill the muslin which is previously bleached one or two paints, to wash away them in the evening, and at night to dry up; the next day, having starched and having again dried up, prokalandrivat at strangers where to it put a chintz in pieces, pressed, and in such tidy look the goods went the printer into the disposal. In the morning in a market day this gorshechnik sold the goods in the same Ivanov to the merchants coming from different places for purchase of sitets. Thus, without departing from the family, the similar printer, selling each market at 20 pieces of the chintz, received at the worst 40 rubles of true benefit. By the end of the year at it the considerable capital " was already formed;.
Quickly grown rich Ivanovo peasants, buying by itself freedom from the count of Sheremetyevo, left the familiar spots in the village and bought nearby lands at landowners. So around the village of Ivanovo there were settlements which united subsequently, having turned into the uniform city of Ivanovo - Voznesensk which began to be called just Ivanovo subsequently.
In Soviet period every fourth meter of fabric the country was given if to trust statistics, numerous factories and combines of Ivanovo and area. And as women were the main employees of the textile industry always, and began to call the city from an easy hand of the unknown journalist “ city of brides “.