When and why we began to be considered? Of 1917 up to now
As censuses were carried out to pre-Pertine and pre-revolutionary times, we spoke in the previous articles.
the Soviet censuses before the Great Patriotic Warwere carried out by
After carrying out population census of 1897 in Russia before October revolution only censuses of the industrial enterprises (1900 and 1908) and farm vehicles, tools, the accounting of cattle - from 1903 to 1916. After revolution, summer of 1918, in Petrograd and Moscow the first Soviet censuses of urban population were carried out. Then the decision on carrying out the All-Russian population census in August, 1920 was made. as
in the Afternoon as of which survey of inhabitants was conducted, it was chosen on August 28 as earlier the church holiday fell on this date and was considered that interrogated easier to remember what events took place shortly before August 28 and what - after the designated date. From - for civil wars by census were not captured by 70% of the territory of the former Russian Empire - Siberia and the Far East, Belarus, the Crimea, three provinces of Ukraine therefore this census was not general. Nevertheless, it turned out that 72% of the population of the country took part in census.
103 thousand counters and 11 thousand instructors were attracted to carrying out the account. It is possible to imagine what difficult and sometimes dangerous was operation of counters at that time, especially in rural areas. In some villages of copyists undressed as thought that it is devils and they have tails. Which - where did not let in houses at all. There were cases of attack of the bandits destroying all census material, and try - restore it again! For data collection the personal leaf of the account, besides, in the cities - the room card, and rural areas - the household sheet was used. The special attention was paid to detection of literacy, an occupation, profession, sources of a subsistence. According to data of this census the population of the country made 134,2 million people. by
carried out on December 17, 1926 the second, already All-Union population census (except the island of Sakhalin where the account was finished only in February, 1931) . In a registration leaf of this census changed a question of a nationality to a nationality, literacy was defined by ability to spell at least and to sign the surname. There were questions of the birthplace and duration of full-time residence, questions of mutilations and mental diseases. It was necessary to specify the mutilation reasons whether they are received during last wars, are congenital or received at work. Population of the USSR on this census made 147,0 million people. by
In eleven years, in January, 1937 carried out the following, All-Union population census which had to show to the whole world of achievement of the first country of socialism. But in the history of domestic statistics it remained the most dark and tragical page. Carried out it within one day on January 6, as of 12 o`clock in the morning with 5 for January 6. Carefully prepared for census - a large number of propaganda literature was let out: 1 million brochures, 2 million leaflets in 29 languages, 300 thousand colourful posters, and about 10 million boxes of matches with slogans went on sale. Over 1 million counters were prepared.
In census account only of the cash population was kept. Questions of the dwelling, a family, of the birthplace and duration of accommodation in one place, about collateral occupation, situation in occupation, giving the characteristic of the social status were excluded from census leaves. But questions of religion and literacy are included.
Results of census turned out so not corresponding expected that had effect of the become torn bomb. The country leaders counted that the increase in population in comparison with 1926 will make about 37,6 million people, and in practice it turned out that it makes only 156 million (against 147 in 1926 - m). Huge human losses, including from severe famine of 1932 - 1934 came to light (by different estimates from 6 to 8 million people). Sharply the population in northern and east areas - as a result of mass repressions and references increased. On a question of the relation to religion even not strongly believing people called themselves the Orthodox Christian, the Muslim, etc. It turned out that in the country there are not a lot of atheists though after disestablishment and mass persecutions on attendants of religion it was possible to wait for other result. 30% of women were not able to spell even and to sign the surname, the fourth part of the population at the age of 10 years and is more senior also was not able to read. Though, as we know, the USSR was called the country of general literacy.
I. Stalin recognized results of census “ harmful “ the organization its unsatisfactory, materials - defective. The obtained data were secret by part, are destroyed by part. The wave of repressions against organizers and ordinary performers swept, many appeared in camps as “ enemies of the people “ the part of them was shot. 8 months later after census the resolution of Council of People`s Commissars of September 25, 1937 appointed new census, to January, 1939.
The unplanned population census which is carried out on January 17, 1939 , naturally, gave “ correct results “. Again the powerful propaganda machine was started. Hundreds of posters, leaflets and propagandists urged the people to execute the debt and to correspond: “ Any of the filled census leaves will be the short and bright story about life of remarkable Soviet people “. Counters carefully prepared on special courses. For check of accuracy of results of census within 10 days after 17 - go January continuous control round was carried out. On counters pressure was put, and it pushed people on any additions.
In practice of census business introduced criminal penalty for evasion from census for the first time. The special secret decree of Council of People`s Commissars on search and the account at census of the homeless and the population which is not registered in the cities disappearing in cellars on attics was adopted, under bridges etc. Two special censuses were still carried out: bodies of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs - prisoners, security guards of jails and employees of the office of People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, and Narkomat of defense - the military personnel. Results of both censuses were added on to the general results. Total number of the population of the USSR made 170,6 million people . A brief summary of this census was published in 1939 - 1940, and final results, and that only on separate indicators, only after the Great Patriotic War in 1947 - 1949
we know About censuses of the post-war period from personal experience. In 1959 when I was a student 2 courses, I was included in number of counters, I went to courses, even participated in trial round on Vasilyevsky Island of Leningrad. But then seriously ached and did not participate in census. And in the last Soviet census of 1989 it was necessary to work as the counter in Klaipeda. It was pleasant to me, it was interesting though not always and not everywhere counters met hospitably.
We will hope that the census approaching in 2010 will not bring us disappointment.