When and where the Barbie doll was born?
B 1959 the American company Mattel let out the first of legendary Barbie dolls. On March 9 the long-legged, pyshnogrudy owner of a wasp waist for the first time appeared before public on American “ To the Fair of toys “ in New - York - this date also became birthday of the toy beauty.
According to the standard opinion, “ mother “ the popular blonde there was an enterprising daughter of the Polish emigrant Moshkovich Ruth Hendler.
And everything began with … bowls. Began the career of the designer Ruth with a list and design of economic utensils - mirrors, ware, clay bowls etc. As good help in it served the husband who helped the spouse with production of frames for pictures, and later “ guided “ the wife on thought of production of doll furniture.
So in 1944 Ruth and her husband Eliot took themselves in partners of the old friend of the family Metson, as led to creation of the Mattel company - reduced from two names: Matt (from Mattson) and El (from Elliot) which originally was engaged modest “ kukolnomebelny “ production.
And in 1958, having observed how selflessly her daughter plays with the photos of the famous models which are cut out from glossy magazines, Ruth decided that it is time to turn them with the husband of a hobby into profitable business by means of creation of a new doll what was not in the history of toys yet. And name of this new “ to the American dream “ by name the beloved daughter Barbara - Barbie was given.
However, the reputation of this doll young lady was far from faultlessness. In 1956 in Switzerland madam Hendler was shocked with a doll Lille - the reckless colored blonde with very frank forms and causing “ prikidy “. The doll was created based on the comic book of the German rag “ Bild “ also was on sale in doubtful institutions (pothouses, taverns, motels) for joys of vacationers. The enterprising American got both a doll, and copyright of it.
One of the Hollywood stars of that time - sex - a bomb Jane Mansfield with whom was " became the second (real) prototype of Barbie; it is copied “ appearance of a doll - blue widely open eyes, magnificent platinum ringlets, harmonous long legs and chubby scarlet sponges.
Of course, at such prototypes it would be strange to create a baby doll for little girls. Ruth Hendler changed idea of a doll: young lady, princess, not the baby or girl, but ideal woman.
By the way, the polovozrely beauty did not cause special enthusiasm in sellers of toys. “ Adult “ the doll came under heavy fire of criticism from children`s psychologists and the movement of feminists that even Barbie`s production for a while suspended. But only several months later the fair-haired beauty created a furor at an annual American fair of toys. And skillfully organized advertizing campaign on television made the business - the first party of dolls dispersed in few days at the price of 3 dollars apiece. Barbie immediately broke all expected records of sales - only for the first year and only in the USA 350 thousand dolls were sold.
But how popularity of the plastic beauty grew, for all half a century of the history it constrained an impact from invariable opponents - children`s psychologists. What causes their hostility to the favourite of millions of children?
First of all, undoubtedly magnificent, but absolutely disproportionate figure of Barbie. If to correlate it to human dimensions, then will leave that with a growth in 167 cm and the weight of 50 kg the doll has a ratio a breast - a waist - hips in 99 - 46 - 84 cm respectively. Doctors agree in opinion that girls, inclined to extremes, - teenagers, wishing to correspond to data of a doll - an idol are capable to torture themselves various diets that can lead to anorexia and bulimia.
Psychologists are anxious also that the young femina which are not possessing so attractive features as the doll blonde, are capable to feel an inferiority complex, depressions and other different mental disorders.
Barbie is reproached also that she forms and exaggerates not those stereotypes and forms of behavior which were since ancient times allocated for the woman in society. The doll forms the consumer relation to life at girls and does not prepare for a role of future wife and mother, declines to sensual pleasures and idle pastime, develops airs and graces, coldness and early sexuality at teenagers.
But despite all assurances of psychologists, and also appearance of very serious competitors (only look as cheerfully and ozorno the self-confident little girl Bratts looks at buyers from show-windows of shops), Barbie still continues to remain the toy, most popular in the world. The seductive and stylish beauty for passed half a century became one of symbols of America. Its importance and value shows at least that one of dolls among other objects in 1976 was placed in “ time capsule “ - as peculiar message of Americans to future generations.
To be continued