How was to slaves in ancient Babylon? Laws of Hammurapi
What the majority of us knows of slavery? Most likely, our knowledge are in many respects based on narrations about revolt of Spartak in Ancient Rome and transatlantic “ To the Hut of the uncle of Volume “. South American “ Slave Izaura “ and French “ Anjelica “ of course, it is not counted. Well, maybe, still, which - that we remember from textbooks of history: about lawlessness of slaves, about lack of property at them etc.
meanwhile if to address the laws governing the relations with this public class it is possible to learn a lot of unexpected and even to ask a question: and to what we were taught in due time?! Let`s begin with Babylon as the powerful centralized state.
But before we will answer a question: and how in general people became slaves? In - the first if were taken prisoner in the war, in - the second, being born from parents - slaves, in - the third, as a result of debt obligations and, at last, as a penalty for a crime. Thus, the society of slaves was quite motley.
And now we will look that it was stated in the well-known laws of the tsar Hammurapi. At that time slaves were, one may say, important part of economic bases of the state, and therefore responsibility for causing to someone from them harm was provided serious. At first sight, it has purely property character: for murder of the slave it was necessary to give another, - to pay a half of its market value for mutilation.
But on the other hand, further it is said that the slaves belonging not to the individual, and to the state (were also such), have the right to establish a family with the person of any (!) estates and to have own economy: the house, a personal estate and financial means to leave behind inheritance. Palace slaves differed from civilian workers only at all in the fact that had no freedom of movement.
Besides, to the slave, it appears, allowed by the law to challenge the status in a judicial proceeding. Besides, it could be exempted from slavery if it was stolen to other country: “ If the person bought in others country of the slave or the slave of other person and when he was to the country (Hammurapi`s power), the owner of the slave or the slave identified the slave or the slave, then if it is the slave and the slave - children of the country (natives of the country of Hammurapi), freedom gratuitously " has to be provided to them;.
Surprising news from time immemorial, isn`t it? But there is more to come. In Babylon the legislative rules protecting from debt slavery were established: restriction of term of working off of a debt with three years, and also sizes of the percent raised by the usurer both with monetary and from a natural loan, and responsibility of the creditor in case of death of the debtor as a result of the bad treatment of him.
How to explain such position of the state to people who were how today it is represented to us (or it was represented), slaves? First of all, it is necessary to consider that the slavery then was considered as a penalty of gods, but such which can be destroyed, expiated. Besides the wise tsar Hammurapi built legal bases of the power not on one punitive measures, and creating personal interest of citizens in kingdom foundations. Providing the civil rights to slaves (especially palace) did them by patriots of the state. So that`s that.