What price is paid by writers for independence? Boris Pasternak of
on October 27, 1958, exactly half a century back, memorable board meeting of the Writers` Union of the USSR at which the question " was the main agenda took place; About the actions of the member of USSR Union of Writers B. L. Pasternak not compatible to a rank of the Soviet writer “. An occasion for “ abrupt dismantling “ two events served: award to the above-named writer of the Nobel Prize (bypassing the Central Committee of CPSU) and the publication abroad the novel “ Doctor Zhivago “.
The meeting was appointed to midday. But friends advised against to Boris Leonidovich to come to a meeting, being afraid of the fact that heart it will not sustain this bacchanalia. The matter is that shortly before it Pasternak complained of heart, and the similar shake-up could lead to a tragic outcome. In 1952 it already had a heart attack …
the Letter instead of presence
Pasternak everything is arrived to Moscow, but, having agreed with arguments of friends, did not go to board meeting. Instead he sat down to write the letter. As Irina Ivanovna Yemelyanova to whom it arrived to that morning tells, Boris Leonidovich sat down in her small room at drawing up the letter to board, and they with mother and friends sat down to drink coffee.
It was not succeeded to find the full text of the letter of Pasternak (much later friends tried to restore for memory several phrases from it), but the general structure written looked so. It began with the fact that at first he wanted to go, but, having learned that some demonstrations, meetings with demagogical speeches prepare, changed the mind. Then - novel napechataniye history - the novel was sent to the Soviet instances and transferred abroad when the similar publication seemed quite possible - there was Dudintsev`s novel, the almanac “ Literary Moscow “. The letter so came to an end: “ I do not expect from you justice. You can shoot, send, make me anything. I forgive you in advance. But you do not hurry. It will not add to you either happiness, or glory. Also you remember, all the same after a while you should rehabilitate me. In your practice it not for the first time “.
Several words about background of a question. First copies “ Doctor Zhivago “ were printed in Milan on November 23, 1957. In a month, on December 16, Pasternak wrote about it to Elena Blaginina: “ Speak, the novel appeared in Italian, soon there will be in English, and then on Swedish, Norwegian, French and German, all within a year. I do not know whether it is known to you that about a year ago Goslitizdat signed the contract with me for the edition of the book and if it was really published in the reduced and tsenzurovanny look, a half of inconveniences and nelovkost would not exist … “
One meeting instead of another
Right after a release of the novel in Italy the Department of culture of the Central Committee decided to arrange Pasternak`s meeting with foreign journalists. It was supposed to bring Pasternak to Society of cultural ties in order that he made a protest against the publication “ unfinished “ works. But Boris Leonidovich refused flatly to participate in a similar performance. Promises to pay the detained fees, to print the stopped editions were used. Reluctantly, Pasternak agreed to meet the western journalists.
It took place not in the society of cultural ties as it was planned in the Central Committee, and on giving the writer to Peredelkino, on December 17, 1957. “ I regret that my novel was not published at us. But it is considered to be that it departs from the official line of the Soviet literature a little. My book underwent criticism, but even nobody read it. For this purpose used only several pages of excerpts, separate remarks of some characters and drew from this wrong conclusions “ - so Boris Leonidovich told about the novel to the western journalists.
In reply to the power did everything possible that the novel was not issued in France and England. So, Alexey Surkov was sent to Paris that he conducted negotiations with publishers, and Fedor Panferov went to England. He succeeded even more Surkov - met Pasternak`s sisters and began to intimidate them by the fact that if the novel appears in England, Pasternak will have big problems in the USSR. But trips of the high-ranking writers “ concerned for destiny of the friend “ did not conceive any consequences - neither French, nor British wanted to refuse the publication of already sensational novel. Especially as in the fall of 1957 after the Italian exit “ Doctor Zhivago “ a number of the western writers demanded to nominate Pasternak to the Nobel Prize.
Successful attempt from the eighth time
In total it were put forward by eight times (from 1946 to 1950 - annually), and only from the last attempt the destiny of the writer was decided favourably. But how reacted to award of the Nobel Prize in the Soviet Union? In two days prior to a meeting, on October 25, in “ To the Literary newspaper “ there was an article “ Provocative sortie of the international reaction “ in which her author did not stint loud epithets. Here only one endurance: “ Pasternak received “ thirty silver coins “ for what the Nobel Prize is used. He is awarded for the fact that he agreed to play a bait role on a rusty hook of anti-Soviet promotion... The disgraceful end waits for the revived Judas, doctor Zhivago, and his author whose destiny will be a national contempt “.
The formulation of the Nobel fund was not anti-Soviet at all: “ For considerable achievements in modern lyrical poetry, and also for continuation of traditions of the great Russian epic novel “.
Not less sharp turned out also article in the " newspaper; Truth “ whose printing word was much more powerful. “ The Sensation of reactionary promotion around a literary weed “ - one name of what costs!
Something similar had to be worried also to me, at the very beginning of 90 - x years when my detective story began to be published in the district newspaper of Baltic military district. No, the risen Judas I was not called, of course, but I remembered words of the head of department of culture of our newspaper well, and today I remember with a smile: “ It is necessary to print on pages of the newspaper stories only of true communists “. On what I did not keep and noticed: “ Here when true communists will write something standing, worthy vessels of readers then we will talk “ …
The game started by enemies...
But we will return to a meeting. It became deification unbridled critics. I will give small fragments from performances. Sergey Smirnov, chairman of meeting: “ All this time B. Pasternak played the dishonest game which is started by enemies. He waited for a release of the novel abroad. And at last the novel appeared abroad. You know what it was a find for foreign reaction, for our enemies. Around this novel mad bedlam began. Pasternak began to be declared the most talented writer and the poet, and till this time its verses, in essence, did not know... At first there was no speech about the Nobel Prize still, did not follow pressure from yet - for the ocean, only after that the question of the Nobel Prize to Pasternak rose on turn. The award to it was awarded, and after that to the Nobel committee as we know from foreign sources, the following telegram was sent by Pasternak (to the Swedish Academy): “ He is Infinitely grateful. It is touched. It is surprised. It is embarrassed. Pasternak “. (Noise in the hall, the movement. Exclamation: Shame!)
I remember how the Norwegian people executed the writer Knut Hamsun who came over to the side of Germans in the years of the German occupation when his compositions flew to his house which is fenced off by a fence! The people showed it what does not wish to hold its books in hand.
It seems to me that also B. Pasternak is worthy such civil execution, and it seems that we should appeal to the government to deprive of Pasternak of the Soviet nationality! “
Lev Oshanin: “ To us it is necessary to understand soberly and quietly what occurred. In that general, very sharp cold war which is waged against us now is a long prepared and very thinly calculated blow. Pasternak was under supervision of our neighbors all the time, Pasternak was surrounded with a huge number of foreigners all the time, and what was thought and done by Pasternak, was very well known abroad. Whether we when learned about it could, to tell that this only, casual, uncharacteristic for all its way that it is another? “
Sergey Antonov: “ It is Very a pity that in 1958, such parsley to conduct dirty, anti-Soviet work, - the figure of the person who existed in our Soviet literary organization was chosen as such figure. Found Pasternak`s figure! Those 40 or 50 thousand American dollars which were received by Pasternak are not an award, it is gratitude for partnership in a crime against the world and rest on the planet, against socialism, against communism. Here what is it!
And me it seems that Nobel would turn over in the grave if he knew where its inheritance is spent now (in the hall noise) because at it it was told in the will that, in particular, he will assign this money for the works promoting a celebration of a cause of peace … “ does not have
, probably, sense, to retell all speakers. It is enough to tell of one: only Alexander Tvardovsky and Nikolay Gribachev spoke against Pasternak`s exception of members of the Writers` Union.
At everyone the look
of K “ To Doctor Zhivago “ it is possible to belong differently. During revolutions and social shocks each person sees reality and the events differently, from height of the lived years and a social step on which he is. Not everything to be Chapayev …
Upon Pasternak put pressure which, eventually, forced it to refuse an award. In the telegram sent to the address of the Swedish academy, Pasternak wrote: “ Owing to that value which was received by the award awarded to me in society to which I belong I have to refuse it. Do not consider for an insult my voluntary refusal “.
The destiny allocated for Boris Pasternak after this meeting very little - some one and a half years. Long time was considered that he died of consequences of the postponed heart attack, but physicians insist that all - lung cancer became a cause of death. But goodness knows, how many it would be measured to the Nobel laureate if not persecution which start was given on October 27, 1958 … to
Fortunately is records of poems of Pasternak performed by the author. Who wants to listen, to you here: mail. ru/list/victorgrig/80/966. html