Who such dayak? The primitive tribes of Kalimantan
the Mysterious island of Kalimantan located in waters of the Indian Ocean directly on the equator is one of the biggest in the world: the third after Greenland and New Guinea. Officially the territory of the former Borneo is divided that is unique, between three states: Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei.
The most part of the island Indonesian - the administrative region Kalimantan. To the North from it there are two Malayan provinces: Sabah and Saravak between whom the sultanate Brunei settled down. For the whole world the island which name in translation means “ diamond river “ is famous as the storeroom of natural resources: the lands covered with rainforests provide wood preparation, on Kalimantan extract oil, gas and, of course, jewels.
But main sight of the island not so troyevlasty and, of course, not rich stocks of natural resources. On Kalimantan there is what in the Middle Ages became a reason for frightening legends and mysterious stories. It is about natives of the island - the primitive tribes which from time immemorial were engaged “ hunting behind the heads “. It is difficult to believe in it, but also in the twenty first century of high technologies, at the height of a globalization era which - where on the island representatives of tribes continue to live laws of ancestors, laws of primitive life.
For the last millennium the Malayan immigrants forced out tribes of aboriginals deep into of the island, in its central part, there, where the numerous rivers originate. And in the impassable jungle of the river is the only intermedium. And wild tribes which in the past occupied all Kalimantan began to call themselves according to names of the rivers on which coast lived.
Today the largest tribes are: ngadzha, klemantana, ibana, Kenya and kayana. There is also a collective name of representatives of all indigenous peoples of the island - a dayaka that in translation from Malayan means scornful - pagans. So more developed and cultural Malayans owing to the fact that natives had no uniform belief, any for all god called inhabitants of the island.
Dayakov it is possible to divide into those who live in island depth, and those who occupy sea coast and mouths of the rivers. Sea dayak - of an ibana , were famous as the most aggressive and blood-thirsty natives in days of old: for piracy they were nicknamed by sea devils. There are on Kalimantan also tribes which are not leading a settled life. These are dayak - nomads - of a punana which all the year round move in a jungle of the jungle, lodging in easy huts and leaving them, only the district settles stocks of edible fruits.
Nomads were never headhunters, and on the contrary became the victims of more blood-thirsty neighbors. It is necessary to tell that representatives of different tribes often are representatives of different ethnic groups: speak on different adverbs, differ in culture of drawing tattoos and styles of woodcarving, trust in different spirits.
Up to the nineteenth century of a dayaka waged internal wars, hunting for the heads. Such fidelity to traditions first of all was caused by what to become the man and acquire the right for a marriage young dayak could, having only got a treasured trophy. Dayaki and destroyed each other if Europeans did not interfere.
In 1839 on the island Englishman James Brook appeared. It helped the sultan of Brunei to settle the local conflicts, including to suppress mutiny of dayak. For it he was granted area about the river Saravak where in 1842 it founded the city of Kuching existing still.
So the dynasty of government of White Rajahs lasting about 100 years began. At James Brook dayak practically ceased to hunt for the heads. In 1868 James`s nephew - Charles Brook who expanded possession of the province to the present sizes came to the power and finally imparted to tribes peace customs.
Charles Winer Brook who ran away from Saravak to Australia at the time of the Japanese occupation in 1941 became the last White Rajah. Then British, having got beaten, set, literally, dayaksky soldiers on Japanese.