When and why we began to be considered? From Peter I till 1917 We told
as well as why we carried out censuses to pre-Pertine times, in the previous article.
“ Revizsky fairy tales “
It is known that the first Russian emperor, Peter I, received the country in quite deplorable state. All activity of Petr, both for an internal reorganization of the state, and for conducting wars demanded huge receipts in treasury, its enrichment. It is natural that for the correct and full collection of requisitions it was necessary to recognize the number of inhabitants in the state as now would tell - to adjust the account. For this purpose in 1702 registers of births for a note baptized, died and contracting marriage were founded. In 1705 it was told to rewrite all trade people to the indication of their crafts.
S. M. Solovyov in “ Stories of the state Russian “ writes that since the beginning of 1705 of a measure for multiplication of the state income amplify. Here some decrees only January, 1705: the first - about return fish lovel on a payoff; the second: on Moscow and in the cities, at any ranks of people having described salt, to sell from treasury, and from now on to put salt in treasury the contract,… and to sell twice. In the same month it is told to rewrite oak coffins at sellers, to bring together them to monasteries and to sell against purchase price four times. In the same January duty on a beard and moustaches is imposed: who will not want to have a shave, from those to take annually: from courtiers, sluzhily and mandative people - on 60 rubles; from guests and a drawing room of the one hundred first article - on 100 rubles, average and smaller article, from trade and posadsky people - on 60 rubles, etc.
B under the decree of the tsar carried out 1710 the last household population census which showed sharp reduction of the population in the country from - for mass flight of peasants from burdensome taxes. By then in Russia there was already a reform of the taxation. Instead of the tax “ from the yard “ it is offered to raise the tax “ from male soul “. In the fall of 1718 the tsar rules to collect by the decree “ fairy tales “ about amount of souls in each settlement. Census took place 4 years, and then within two years, in 1722 - 1724, audit (revision, check of results) of census was carried out. From this point also originate “ revizsky fairy tales “.
Revizsky fairy tales were lists of names of the population in which were entered a name, a middle name and a surname of the owner of the yard, its age, a name and a middle name of family members with the indication of age, the attitude towards the head of the family.
The first “ audit “ showed that the number of persons of a podatny state in Russia 5 967 313 people. On the basis of the obtained data the government shared quantity of the money necessary for the maintenance of army and fleet into population. The size of a subear tax was as a result determined: serfs of landowners paid the state 74 kopeks, the state peasants - 1 ruble 14 kopeks (as did not pay a quitrent), urban population - 1 ruble 20 kopeks.
In the cities representatives of a municipal government were engaged in drawing up lists, in villages of the state peasants heads, and in private possession - landowners or their managing directors rewrote. In addition it was told, the decree on May 10, 1722, to make census to the low-Russians of suburban regiments lodged on landowners` estates, but having declared it that they correspond only for data, but not for requisitions. Foreigners - the Astrakhan and Ufa Tatars as it is equal also Siberian yasachny and falls, revizsky census did not concern at all.
Before cancellation of a serfdom there took place ten audits (1718 - 1724, 1742, 1761, 1781, 1794, 1811, 1815, 1833, 1850, 1856). They supplied with very inexact information on the population as considered not the actual number of inhabitants but only the people who were listed for payment of a tax. They lasted very long, several years: landowners did not hurry to share work of the podatny population with the state and detained giving revizsky “ fairy tales “. At the same time types of the account, structure of taxable persons changed. So, for example, 1 - I, 2 - I and 6 - I audits considered only “ male souls “ the others - both man`s, and female, but the female never appeared in summary tables. In one and all audits did not rewrite noblemen, clergy, retired soldiers and the dragoon, and also serving in field army and fleet. At the end of the 18th century the state exempted from a subear tax of merchants 1 - y guilds, government officials and commoners. Besides, “ audits “ were carried out not in all territory of the Russian Empire - they were not in Poland, in Transcaucasia, in the yasachny Areas of Siberia, only since 1781 “ audits “ began to carry out in Ukraine.
Though in intervals between audits “ fairy tales “ were specified, but specifications were reduced by the main year, and everyone “ revizsky soul “ was considered cash before the following audit even if the person died. P. I. Chichikov in N. V. Gogol`s novel " also decided to use this fact; Dead souls “.
the First general population census of the Russian Empirewere carried out by
In the second half of the 19th century in Russia very important reforms - cancellation of a serfdom in 1861 and territorial reform in 1863 after which there was a pressing need in new forms of the accounting of the population, in carrying out general, extra class census. In Russia by this time there was already a practical statistics which was presented by three forms - kazenno - administrative, territorial and departmental.
All of them, in general, kept account of the population and economic activity, just submitted to different departments. In 1864 the new provision on statistical establishment was developed, and the Central statistical committee which was headed by the famous scientist - the geographer P. P. Semenov - Tyan - Shansky (1827 - 1914) is created. He developed the project of carrying out the First All-Russian population census which was carried out on January 28 (on February 9 on new style) 1897.
Census was carried out by the principle of one-day population census, as of zero hours on January 28. 3 categories of the population were considered: cash, constant (settled) and assigned. For census schedules of three types were used: sheets of a form A - for country farms of rural societies, sheets of a form B - for possessory farms, private houses and internal settlements, and a form B - for city dwellers (kvartirokhozyaystvo). Schedules included 14 points on each person: 1) name, 2) marital status, 3) attitude towards the head of economy, 4) floor, 5) age, 6) estate or state, 7) religion, 8) birthplace, 9) place of an addition, 10) permanent address, 11) native language, 12) literacy, 13) occupation, 14) physical defects. Then questions of situation on a compulsory military service were still added; the question of literacy broke into two: “ whether is able to read and where it was trained “ and the question of occupations was dismembered on “ main and collateral “ and also the question " was entered; about absence “.
Though it was supposed that the part of forms, especially in the cities, has to be filled with citizens, from - for low literacy of the population the most part of forms was filled by counters. The population was not prepared for census, often were even afraid of it. Especially in connection with questions of a compulsory military service and religion - even cases of self-immolation of Old Believers are known not to pass census. There were also funny facts. For example, Nicholas II in the column “ occupation “ modestly specified: “ owner of land of the Russian “ and some men from villages on a question of a name and the wife`s middle name, answered so: “ I Will call her! The woman indeed, is also not present her more name “.
When processing materials of census many shortcomings were found. From machining that it was planned, it was necessary to refuse, and everything was processed generally manually, and it significantly increased terms. With big defects census materials on occupations, the native language and literacy were developed. But, despite all shortcomings, the First All-Russian population census of 1897 was the only more or less reliable source of data on number and structure of the population of Russia of the end of the 19th century. Census captured all territory of the empire, except the Grand duchy Finnish. Census showed that over 125 million people lived in Russia.
The cost of census of 1897 made about 7 million rubles, about 5,5 kopeks on the person. The main results were published by 1905 in two volumes “ General arch of results “ and separate releases on each province, besides, releases for six largest cities of the empire - St. Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Warsaw, Kiev and Riga were published.
For rewarding of participants of census on November 21, 1896 by Nicholas II it was founded and rapped out to Sankt - the St. Petersburg mint the medal “ For works on the first General population census of 1897 “. The medal awarded the persons of both sexes which gratuitously assumed duties of counters, and also who were taking part in production of census as the general and local heads. Military, the acting as counters got a medal also. By the way, Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a participant of census of 1897, he directed group of counters in the Serpukhov County of the Moscow province.
About population censuses in the USSR and modern Russia in the following article.