How to develop at children of preschool age of ability to mathematics?
So, again we will talk about abilities of our small children. Today I want to tell you about how to teach to consider children, making for it a minimum of efforts. It is known that nothing so helps the kid to remember useful information as game. But I want you to warn at once: not only the child, but also you has to play. You will not deceive children, they feel falseness and if you treat the training game as to unpleasant and uninteresting occupation, then and your kid, as if you tried, will treat her also. Therefore play with the child only if you have a suitable mood.
I want to tell you how my grandmother taught to consider me. It is necessary to tell that we lived at that time on the fifth floor of the five-floor house, and the elevator as you understand, in this house was not. And as I walked on the street at that time only with the grandmother, at least 2, and even 4 times a day we with it made ascension, and, respectively, a convergence on this hugest ladder. In one flight there were 10 steps. And the grandmother when went on a ladder, just considered these steps. “ Time - two - three - four … “ After a while (and I then was about two years old) I repeated together with the grandmother: “ Lyaz - a dva - tl - tsetyl … “
When I acquired the account within ten, my grandmother began to study with me structure of number as follows. Will pass, for example 4 steps, and speaks: “ Oh, Natashenka, something I was tired, and well - consider how many we have to pass still steps to the following short flight of stairs? “ And I considered, it is necessary to calculate somehow to the grandmother the forces. So I quickly acquired that ten steps can share on 3 and 7, either 4 and 6, or 2 and 8.
And it is possible to consider anything! If to issue it as game, then your kid will be delighted simply. When you go along the road, it is possible to consider cars. For example, you will consider green, and your kid red whose cars will be more, to be exact, who will count more cars, that also won.
For a start it is worth acquiring together with the kid of the concept “ one “ and “ it is a lot of “. Further - “ it is more “ “ it is less “ “ equally “. Then - “ it is more on … “ “ it is less on … “. When the child acquires these concepts, it is possible to pass to measuring sizes. It is possible to measure distances. From simple to difficult: at first in steps, then in meters, and so on. And still it is necessary to know that in two years the kid will easily acquire the account within 5. Three years - within 10 and so on, and by five years it is possible to reach twenty.
Well, we will begin. Concepts “ one “ and “ it is a lot of “ accustom very easily. Just every time when you meet groups of the objects suitable under this category pay to it attention of the kid. For example, on the road many cars and one bicycle go. Ask, the child how many bicycles go down the street. The child will answer you: one. Then you ask how many on the street of cars. And if the child is at a loss with the answer, tell that there is a lot of cars on the street. Already every time. On one side of the street one tree grows, and on another - there is a lot of. The seller of balls has many balls, and at wons of that boy - one. And so on.
When the kid will acquire the concepts “ one “ - “ it is a lot of “ it is possible to begin it to acquaint with the concepts “ it is more “ - “ it is less “ it is possible, for example, by means of such game: let`s call it simply: “ What it is more? “. You need for a start two groups of small objects. Let it will be, for example dry leaves from trees and the cone. Suggest the kid to lay out leaves in a row, and under them, to lay out cones. Ask the kid what remained without couple? Tell that it is more leaves. Suggest the child to consider how many leaves and how many cones. Clean several leaves so that objects became equally. Explain to the kid that now leaves and cones equally.
At acquaintance with the concepts “ it is more on … “ “ it is less on … “ it is possible to play the same game, only the kid has to clean independently objects so that them became equally. Pay attention of the child to that how many he cleaned leaves that leaves and cones became equally. Respectively, if the kid cleaned two leaves, then it is more leaves than cones on two, (one, three …).
- it is time for six to acquaint children of years of four with measurement of length and volume. It can devote not one article, but I will try to formulate accurately what I want to tell you, and for this purpose too I will use examples of games.
For a start you should make together with your child some material which is useful to you for acquaintance with such concept as “ length “. Take several matches, and paste to them pieces of color paper so that peculiar tags turned out. Color paper is enough to be taken only two flowers. Let it will be red and blue color. Make about 20 - 30 such tags. And blue tags at you will designate tens, and red - units. Therefore, if you make 20 red tags, then blue it is necessary only two, and even more precisely, 18 red, and two blue. Now, when you go with the child to walk, for example, to park, do not forget to take these tags with yourself. They will not take a lot of place, and very much will be useful.
Suggest to measure to the child path length in park (or width), the pool length, fencing length, or all another that will meet to you on the way. Explain to your kid that you will take the wide step for a unit of measure (or three it). For this purpose, taking a step, leave on the earth a red tag in that place where you go. Then, suggest the kid to do too most and when the path ends (a pool, a fencing), suggest the kid to consider how many steps the path lasted.
Then it is possible to tell the child that your such wide step (or three it) is equal to one meter. After that suggest the kid each ten of your steps to put not a red, but blue tag on the earth. And then it will be possible to consider not as units, but tens. But it will be a little difficult for the child of four years, and it is necessary to begin such replacements years with six.
To acquire the concept “ liter “ it is possible to play with the kid directly in kitchen. For this purpose take liter, half liter, three-liter banks, and a glass (250 - gram). Suggest the kid to measure how many glasses of water will enter a half-liter jar. For this purpose gather water in a glass, and pour out in a jar, and the second glass is gathered let by your kid. Pay attention of the kid that two glasses of water entered a half liter (small) jar.
In the face of your kid pour out water of a half-liter jar in liter and point that the one-liter jar was half full. Ask the child how he thinks how many he still small jars of water will be located in this average size to bank? And how many glasses? If the kid is at a loss with this answer, ask how many glasses were in a small jar, and ask to consider how many glasses of water will enter a one-liter jar.
In the same way it is possible to measure an amount of water in a 3-liter jar. That is, number of glasses, half-liter and one-liter jars. Then tell the kid that it is accepted to measure any vessels in such one-liter jars and if he hears where - nibud that the volume of any vessel (a bucket, a bathtub, the pool …) is equal how many - to liters, will know now what is liter.
I hope, my recommendations will be useful to you in pleasant, interesting and informative pastime with your child. And games which I suggested you to use will help your child to examine with difficult mathematical to concepts.