Rus Articles Journal

How and when there was English?

English... In one pupil this phrase causes interest, in another permanent disgust. But we will not remember about bad, especially English is the most widespread language. In many countries it is studied as the first or second language. Today it is impossible to do without English on a trip on various corners of the world simply. Such tendency developed thanks to policy and modern trade.

In modern business relations English is priority. In many countries it represents the second state language, on it newspapers, magazines are issued, it is conducted a body - and broadcasting.

The majority of goods of export production have instructions in English. Also in many programs, beginning from phone and finishing with the car, systems in English are initially installed. If russification is not developed for your equipment yet, at tolerable knowledge of language you will perfectly cope with all difficulties of control. However we will return to our main question: how and when there was English?

In the V-VI centuries ancient German tribes of angl, saxophones and yut moved from the continent to Britain inhabited by Celts. The neighbourhood of these tribes led to emergence of the English nationality, and interaction of breeding adverbs - to gradual formation of Anglo-Saxon language (the VII-XI centuries AD) . During this period on formation of language noticeable impact was exerted by the Scandinavian and Latin languages.

From the beginning of an era of penetration of Christianity into Britain in Old English language the Latin alphabet and Latin words appeared. First of all, it were the terms directly related to church, and also names of different types of food and clothes. From the Scandinavian tribes British, in turn, borrowed such grammatical words as of they - they, of their - them, of same - the same.

In 1066 England was conquered by Normans - the tribes living in the territory of France. This gain led to the fact that the long period of bilingualism began. French was official - it meant that in it all documents were written, public affairs were run. The long use of French became the fixing reason in writing of some combinations of letters which not quite corresponded to sound structure of English, and in oral speech extensive layer of the French lexicon appeared.

Also during this period emergence of a number of words which were received by loan from other languages is noted. For example, new names of simple crafts and animals came from the German language. During the same period there is also a number of changes in a grammatical structure of language. First of all, it should be noted mixture of the nominal and verbal terminations which finally disappear subsequently from pages of the English grammar.

Introduction in England of publishing (1476) promoted fixing and distribution of the London forms that was helped much by popularity of works of the great writer J. Chaucer (1340 - 1400) writing on the London dialect. However publishing fixed some traditional writing which were not reflecting norms of a pronunciation of the end of 15 century any more. Thus, the divergence, so characteristic of modern English, between a pronunciation and writing began. (The big Soviet encyclopedia)

is a discrepancy between a pronunciation and writing causes in the foreigners learning English, difficulties when training in reading. But it is not the only difficulty on the way of the person interested to thoroughly learn English.

Except official British English, still there is the American English. In spite of the fact that both of these languages have one primogenitor, distinctions between them, both lexical, and grammatical, it is a lot of.