How to write scientific work? The people having inquisitive mind have
, perhaps, from a school bench there is a desire something to understand and to classify: to analyze, classify, generalize, draw conclusions. And, having for the first time faced desire to perform scientific work, the person suddenly lowers hands because does not represent how it is technically correct to execute it.
Therefore, for example, school compositions, the essay, papers and monographs in fact such often are not: they are similar at each other, sometimes differ only in registration of the title page. And the easiest to receive contents from infinite storerooms of the Internet, than many, unfortunately, and use. And at such statement of business unless will be able “ fast reason Nevtonov the Russian land to give rise “? Let`s try to improve these things and to prompt what requirements to scientific works exist today.
So, before us the beginning researcher, the scientist trying to organize the work. At once there is a question of the choice of a subject. It can be set by circumstances or is dictated by burning interest of the young scientist in the world. If there are subjects at choice, then, of course, it is more natural to choose that though you know a little. Interest - the main engine of any research.
Without interest work can be made too, but also process of research will be painfully boring, and the result will turn out the most boring to impropriety. And from history we know that our best scientists were natures passionate, keen, talented, inquisitive, spiritually gifted. Sometimes disseminated in life, but to a limit concentrated in practice … by
the Most correct - when the beginning scientist wishes to offer the world the area of a personal interest having public value. But with a set of versatile interests it is sometimes difficult for very young man to stop on a concrete subject. And here the research supervisor has to give help (at school - the teacher!) . It is correct to choose a research subject - to overcome a half of a way. And vice versa: the mistake in the choice will lead to deplorable result.
The subject has to be proportional to the estimated volume of work. Volume is set by a type of work. The research supervisor usually helps also with this question: prompts a minimum and a maximum of printing pages. The volume of newspaper or journal article should not exceed 10 - 12 typewritten pages, term papers in technical school and college - 20 - 45, in higher education institution - 25 - 50, degree - to 100 pages. The master`s thesis - to 150 pages.
If material does not keep within necessary volume, then it is possible to narrow a subject, and to consider the rest another time. For example, you wanted to execute research of local history character about the mudflow and its vicinities in general, but during a statement of material understood that you do not keep within the necessary volume. Then write about the street, about two - three streets. They are fully capable to make impression about the whole object of research - a mudflow. The description of a fighting way of several veterans can give an idea of participation in war of all villagers.
… The subject is, work began spontaneously, but without plan . And without it it is possible to lose the main direction, to be fond of particulars, to make the work kompozitsionno disproportionate. Therefore in any plan there have to be three main parts: introduction (introduction), body and conclusion (conclusion). On character and volume to scientific work they have to be present at any.
The introduction is a justification of a subject. The motives which induced the author to undertake a subject and also to whom and why it is of interest? A body - a question essence statement: the available data, the facts on a subject, opinions of the author, results of his own researches. The conclusion is a result, conclusions without which works of the author can seem unnecessary.
The logical, correctly constructed plan - the base of success. But in any scientific work there are dangers - nedo - and replanning. Also two types of unsystematic character are observed: all facts and data - in a heap, or all - everything is excessively strict on shelves. In very big economy it is impossible to consider each trifle and it is not necessary. It is also impossible in one work “ to embrace immensity “ because the world, the phenomenon, object are subject to the continuous movement, changes. Each researcher has to know and consider it. When the plan is put above business, the economy (organization) becomes slow, poorly reacts on “ wind of change “. If a number of the same objects and the phenomena is studied, then research should not remind dogmatically accurately completed questionnaire - absolutely identical to all and all.
And now about body works … If the chosen subject was already studied by the previous researchers, then first of all it is necessary to state what is already known. Happens that studies on it and come to an end. But there is a complexity: practically nobody will overcome all literature on a subject therefore it is necessary to read the basic (in this question a role of the mentor defining!).
The beginning researcher has to treat references very much and very crucially. In the innocence many people continue to believe in infallibility of the printing word. But it is self-deception. There are authors who objectively stood and stand on scientific positions, however is also such which are not recognized by none of scientific community, no authority is had or even at all not by(with) nauchna (state the complete nonsense and a gag!) .
Do not think that study demands from the young researcher only of the correct statement of facts of common knowledge. If the own facts, ideas and thoughts are really acquired, then it is necessary to compare them with about what read, to reveal possible contradictions. Perhaps, new practices just will also argue with those that were known earlier. And if it so, then it is necessary to understand why. The unexpected conclusions drawn even in school researches just can also lead to the real opening.
Interesting conclusions, the noticed regularities is a new step to knowledge of the world, this emergence of the new correctly put mind capable to resolve “ unsoluble “ before its emergence of a task.