When and why we began to be considered? From times bible to Peter I
It is known that in over a year, in 2010, us are expected by the next All-Russian population census. The statistical service of the country already began preparation for it, in some regions will carry out at first trial census. Though, in general, the previous census was carried out rather recently, in 2002.
And what we in general know about population censuses when and why began to keep account of the people? In various encyclopedias and reference books on the population it is said that any lists and the accounting of the population were kept in the ancient states of Asia and Africa in the third millennium B.C., naturally, it became generally more to collect taxes and taxes.
In the bible, in the Old Testament, in “ To the Fourth book of Moiseyeva: Numbers “ command about census is given: “ 1. Also the Lord told Moisey in the desert Sinai …: “ Estimate all society of sons Israel on childbirth them, on their families, on number of names, all a male it is universal “.
Jesus Christ`s Christmas also coincided with one of such censuses as in the Roman Empire of that period there were lists of citizens on estates and regular updates of these data were carried out. In the New testament, in the Gospel from Luka, chapter II, is so told about the next census: “ 1. Those days command left to make from the Caesar Augustus census on all earth. 2. This census was the first in board to Kviriniya Siriyey. 3. Also all went to register, everyone to the city. 4. Went as well Iosif from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of Davidov, the called Bethlehem because there was it from the house and Davidov`s family, 5. To register with Mariyey, I obruchennoit to him the wife who was pregnant. … “
In medieval Europe the most known example of population census is drawing up “ Doomsday Books “ (Domesday Book, or Doomsday that means - the Last Judgement) William the Conqueror in 1086, after mastering by it the English kingdom. It is as a matter of fact the cadastral book. The census which is carried out by order of Wilhelm included an assessment of all property - the size of arable lands, meadows, the woods, pastures, any sources of the income, and defined the fiscal rights of the king. After this census it was impossible to take cover from collectors of taxes. And as a result of this census many peasants free before were transferred to the category of serf (villan).
of Census in Russia of times Tatar - the Mongolian yoke
In Russia the first data on population censuses belong by the time of Tatar - the Mongolian invasion; they were carried out more to collect tributes. The first census made Tatar “ tear-off calendars “ treats 1245 - 1246, it covered the southern part of Russia. After it three more censuses were made. Taxes were levied “ from the yard “ “ from a plow “ “ from the husband “ “ from a smoke “. Only attendants of religions were exempted from a tribute. 14 types " are known; Horde tyagost “ from which were main: “ exit “ or “ tsaryova tribute “ a tax directly for the Mongolian khan; sales taxes (“ it is washed “ “ tamka “); izvozny duties (“ holes “ “ supplies “); keeping of hansky ambassadors (“ forage “) ; various “ gifts “ and “ pochestya “ to the khan, his relatives and confidants, etc.
the Italian monk - the Franciscan Giovanni Plano Karpini who visited Tatar - the Mongolian khanate in 1245 - 1249 (it was sent there by the father Innokenti IV with official Catholic mission) and Batyem meeting the khan, and then and with the great khan Guyuk (Kuyuk), tells that during his stay in the Russian principalities subject to Tatars, khans sent baskaky here one saratsin who took one from each father of the family which had three sons, captured all unmarried men and women who did not have lawful husbands, also all beggars, listed the others, on custom Tatar, and laid under tribute: each person of a male, whatever age and a state was, was obliged to pay on fur bear, beaver, sable, horkovy and fox; who could not pay, that was taken away in slavery.
Historian S. M. Nightingales in the work “ History of the State Russian “ writes that after death of Batyya when his brother Burke became the great khan, in 1257 there was the second census: “ … there arrived tear-off calendars, considered all earth Suzdal, Murom, Ryazan, put foremen, centurions, chiliarches and temnik, did not consider only abbots, chernets, priests and kliroshan “. Similar census was carried out in all lands subject to Tatars, and everywhere attendants of all religions, including the Jewish rabbis, were exempted from taxes. The Novgorod principality most longer resisted carrying out census by Tatars. S. M. Solovyov writes that the grand duke Alexander (Nevsky) arrived to Novgorod with the Tatar ambassadors, “ which began to demand tithe and a tamga; Novgorodians did not agree, gave gifts for the khan and let ambassadors go in peace “. Only in 1273 in the Novgorod lands the Tatar officials established “ number “ - carried out the pokhozyaystvenny census defining not the number of people, but number of the yards from whom the monetary tax was levied. The tax gathered the Russian princes and was brought to the Horde. In some sources it is said that since 1275 Tatar “ tear-off calendars “ ceased to come to Russia for censuses, and Russian princes began to consider the population.
the Soshny letter
Since the end of the 15th century in Russia, at first in the Novgorod lands, and later on all Moscow state extends a new type of the account - the juicy letter (by quantity dried in economy). If from the Tatar censuses documents practically did not remain, then the juicy letter is submitted by a set of pistsovy books, the most ancient of which - the Novgorod pistsovy books of the end of the 15th century. As a matter of fact, the juicy letter is the land registry made periodically, and updated with the indication of acreage, is productive used in economy, the yards and the people living in them. Such account gained the greatest development in the XVI-XVII centuries when censuses become constants. General census of all Russian state - “ Big letter “ it was carried out long, in 1590 - x, 1620 - x - 1630 - x, 1646 - m, and 1676 - 78 years. Besides the inventory of all yards obliged to pay taxes at the beginning of the 17th century (census of 1620 - 1630) were made so-called “ Patrol books “ where the farms which were injured and ruined in the Time of Troubles were described.
The household account existed in Russia a little more than half a century. The last household censuses showed continuous reduction of the draft yards, besides, at the land or household account there were unaccounted trade and trade occupations, and it was unprofitable to the state, practically led to weakening of public finances. Therefore it was decided to pass from the household, or pokhozyaystvenny taxation to universal, or “ subear “. In this regard there was a need for the direct accounting of the population which took the form of so-called audits. And “ audits “ occurred already in Peter I`s reign.
Continuation in the following article.