Who in the woods and on the mountains? P. A. Melnikov (Andrey Pechersky) of
For a start, for warm-up: which of readers can distinguish a farthingale from a tansy? The answer is at the end of article. And question not idle! We use some objects, some concepts today and we do not think that the seeming constancy of world around through some time will play a dirty trick with us: we will cease to understand the events. From - for changes of language, a situation, household items, the social device, at last.
About half a century back I got acquainted with one of the most unique works of the Russian literature - Andrey Pechersky`s novel “ In the woods. On the mountains “. Probably, not incidentally, because I obtained it to the order “ The Book - the " mail;. (Post department had once such service - mailing of books by request. In all post offices there were catalogs of mailings, the order could be received cash on delivery.)
And here now, many years later, there was a wish to find material on switches (Old Belief sect). It was remembered that in this book some sect with all its features was described. Began to re-read - and here I was surprised by incredibly extensive ethnographic material. The author described life of time in which there is an action, as if in passing and easy supplying with the information on what was recently (it “ recently “ at it stretched on 50 - 100 years ago).
And to what it is interesting to read all this: from monetary circulation to clothes details! And it not scientific research, this description of reality in that look in what the author found it (or as could write down according to those who else remembered last times).
According to its description it is possible to construct an Old Russian log hut and to arrange it. You judge:
“ The Great Russian log hut in the north, in the east and across Volga has an arrangement identical almost everywhere: to the right of an entrance in a corner - the furnace (it is seldom put on the left, such log hut is called “ not spinner “ because on a long bench that against furnace from place of honor to horseman, to spin not from a hand, - the right hand to a wall is necessary and not on light).
A corner to the left of an entrance and the counter from a door to a corner is called the horseman, here the place for the owner`s spanye, and under a bench the harness and different belongings are put.
A forward corner to the right - red, sacred, there an image, before them a table. The bench from the horseman to a place of honor is called long.
The forward corner to the left of an entrance - woman`s is kutnut or stryapny; it often separates from a log hut a board partition.
The bench from a sacred corner to stryapny is called big, and sometimes red.
A counter from a woman`s kut to an oven - a stryapny bench, near it to the furnace - stryapny stavets, like a shkapchik and a table together; on it food prepares.
A retag, or a peremetny bench, - the bench put to a table during a lunch or a dinner. “
What remained in our verbal use? Place of honor. Already none of citizens understand all the rest.
The sketch about language, about a slang is very interesting:
“ “ On - ofensk “ … The artificial language used ofenyam (hodebshchik, messengers). It is called also lamansky. It is made of the modified Russian words, is incomplete, it is limited to the words most necessary for life of hodebshchik. The grammar is the Russian. We have still same artificial languages: galifonskiya in Galich, in Nerekhotskom and other counties of the Kostroma province, matrayskiya in the Murom county and near Arzamas in the village Red, kantyuzhny - thieves` language in the Ryazan, Moscow and Tver provinces, language of Kovrov sherstobit, St. Petersburg mazurik (flannelette). All these languages from the modified or thought up words with the Russian grammar and all to one in the course at dissenters of this or that party. “ In more detail - here.
That you can answer a question: “ After the hair dryer you botat? “ It is a criminal slang, the question is translated into Russian so: “ You can speak criminal slang? “ And here, it turns out that the name of a thieves` cant “ fenya “ originates in language ofen, small retail traders, messengers (as in the song “ The Prices itself paid considerable, do not bargain, do not stint “ - to the song of an ofena, pedlar).
And which of you heard the word “ gomonok “? And who knows, what is it? It is a purse. And here what is told about it to us by A. Pechersky: “ Hubbub, a gamz - a wallet, a burse, in general storage of money. Gamza (but never hubbub) is used also in sense - money, the capital. Speak also to gamzit - to save up money; gamzila - the one who saves up money.) “.
It would be possible and to continue, so everything is interesting. But natural question: “ And it is necessary to us? “ The Answer in a question: “ When you learned sense of expression “ he forced to respect himself “? “
You remember in “ Eugene Onegin “:
“ My uncle, the most honest rules,
When not for fun got sick,
I forced to respect himself could not invent better. “
Or synonym of this expression: “ Joined the majority “. Both of these phrases mean same: the person died. And if not to know sense of expression - the sense of part of work does not reach (and even all).
Or here still. Names of streets - they are perceived without thoughts about their sense. Some directly bear the name of a profession of people who once were under construction on these streets. And for some there was only a sounding. For example, Basmannaya in Moscow. It appears, “ Basmyonny business from a basm - thin, lightweight, sheet silver on which restricted different patterns (herbs). On icons basmyonny only salaries, that is borders of an image became. Basmyonny business was very widespread on ease and low cost. In Moscow there was a special settlement of basmyonshchik - now Basmannaya. “
Whether there is for you a difference in the words “ brother “ and “ brother “? If the first word is still rather common, then for the second the spelling shows a grammatical mistake - for it such word does not exist any more. And so, “ brother “ - elder brother, “ brother “ - younger brother.
If you have patience to read the book, you not only will feel beauty of style of the writer, but also will make for yourself a heap of opening!
P. S. Pizhma - a medicinal grass, a farthingale - a detail of a women`s dress in the 18th century.