What did Vasili Grossman`s attempts to tell the truth about war end with?
the Writer Vasily Semyonovich Grossman is well-known to readers. Its books enjoy invariable popularity, actively publish them and today when publishing houses are guided only by commercial success.
Future writer was born on December 12 (on November 29), 1905 in Berdichev where his father worked as the chemical engineer, and mother taught French. However, called him then Iosif, and the middle name was Solomonovich. “ Russified “ the name it already in Soviet period.
When time to get an education approached, parents defined the son in the Kiev real school. But soon over the country series of revolutions, and then and civil war swept. It was necessary to return to Grossman to native Berdichev and to study up there at uniform labor school. In 1921 Vasili entered the Kiev institute of national education, and then moved to Moscow where he continued training at chemical office of a physical mat of MSU.
In Moscow treat the period of study of Grossman “ first attempts at writing “. The first small stories were in many respects imitative, nothing in them foretold that the author will grow up in the large prose writer over time. Vasili continued to write in Donbass where he worked after the termination of University. Here Grossman met many interesting and original people, learned life of the people more deeply.
In Grossman`s destiny the story " became landmark; In the city of Berdichev “ about the pregnant woman - the commissioner who appeared in the city occupied white, written at the beginning of 30 - x years. Maxim Gorky with whom the author had a long conversation kindly spoke of the story. After that Grossman decided to be engaged in literary work seriously. In 1934 its first story " was issued; Glyukauf “ in which the writer tried is multidimensional to show life of miners. Soon several collections of stories were published.
Inspired with success, Grossman was accepted to the serious novel about life of the working guy involved by power of circumstances in revolutionary fight and who became the conscious Bolshevik. Two parts of the novel “ Stepan Kolchugin “ conceived as the trilogy, were published before war and received good responses of criticism. The novel even moved forward on the Stalin award, and it for the young author who is just admitted to the Writers` Union, undoubted success.
During this period Grossman made an act which then not everyone could venture. Writer “ took away “ the wife Olga at the fellow writer Boris Guber. And when during repressions of 1937 arrested Boris and Olga, took away their children to itself and began to go on instances, trying to obtain release of the woman. Surprisingly, but he could achieve Olga`s release, having proved that she actually was his spouse, but not the wife of the arrested Guber.
When the Great Patriotic War began, Grossman, as well as many writers, became the war correspondent. On " newspaper tasks; Red star “ he was on fronts, more than once got under bombardments and firings as always sought to reach a front line where found heroes for the sketches and stories.
It should be noted that during war Grossman held authority not only with readers, but also in power. He was elected in board of the Writers` Union, its sketches “ Red star “ published with continuations in several numbers, and then they were reprinted by other editions. In 1942 its story " was published; The People are immortal “ and in 1943 - it is art - the documentary book “ Stalingrad “ and big sketch “ Direction of the main blow “ which according to Stalin`s instructions was reprinted by other editions. From now on Stalingrad was included for a long time into his creativity. By the way, near Stalingrad he received the first war decoration - an award of the Red Star.
After war which Grossman up to the end passed the war correspondent for him began “ rainy days “. In 1946 its play " was literally crushed by criticism; If to trust Pythagoreans “. In three years already ready circulation " was destroyed; Black book “ devoted to genocide. And it besides that its large sketch about genocide of Jews “ Treblinsky hell “ extended the separate brochure on the Nuremberg process as the document from charge.
Very hard “ made the way “ to readers the novel conceived in 1943 originally called by the author “ Stalingrad “. Censorship had to change it repeatedly to please, even to change the name on “ For a right cause “. The magazine version of the novel left in “ New world “ in 1952. He was well met by readers, also the first reviews were kind. But then the devastating article in " appeared; To the Truth “. What is at that time to become the author of work with “ anti-Soviet essence “ it is not necessary to explain.
After Stalin`s death safely forgot about former persecution of the novel and even allowed it to print in several publishing houses at once. The inspired Grossman was accepted to the new novel, without representing what expects this work. In 1960 Grossman gave to the " magazine; Banner “ novel “ Life and destiny “ in which, as well as in previous, tried unvarnished to tell readers all terrible truth about war. Editorial board of the " magazine; detained “ the novel more than half a year, and then drew a conclusion that it “ for the publication it is unacceptable “.
Over the author clouds began to be condensed again. On the advice of the friends Grossman lodged several copies of the manuscript in reliable hands. He made it in time. In February, 1961 to the writer came “ people in plain clothes “. They behaved correctly and it is even precautionary, but the manuscript of the novel and all draft copies took away. It is curious that draft copies and sketches of other works did not touch, and among them there was also a draft version of the story “ Everything flows “ in which was enough " too; seditions “.
Special repressions concerning Grossman did not follow, he just practically ceased to be printed. Times were not Stalin, and Grossman addressed with the letter Khrushchev. The secretary general did not respond, but the writer was accepted by Suslov who advised to forget about this novel, but to work to continue and even promised to let out five-volume collected works of Grossman. Soon with one of publishing houses negotiations on the edition of a five-volume edition began, but gradually skillfully nullified them.
Grossman was never a dissident, he just wanted to write the truth and to print the books in the homeland. Novel “ Life and destiny “ as well as story “ Everything flows “ nevertheless came to readers, but at first they were published abroad where manuscripts were forwarded by the writer`s friends but only at the end of 80 - x years in the USSR. The author did not see them any more. Vasily Semyonovich Grossman died on September 15, 1964. Buried him on the Troyekurovsky cemetery in Moscow.