Rus Articles Journal

Why Peter I forbade to build stone houses in Russia, except the capital?

on October 20, 1714 the tsar Peter I issued the Decree on prohibition of stone construction across all Russia and about construction in the new capital exclusively stone model houses . From now on construction of stone houses where - or, except St. Petersburg, was very strictly punished. With the stroke of the pen the tsar left without work thousands of bricklayers across all Russia.

Calculation was following: as for bricklayers their work is a way of earning money and feeding of a family, they will be forced to move off in searches of the better lot on a breg of Neva where will continue to do favorite thing. Thus, it will allow the new Russian capital to become as soon as possible level with with the capitals of other European cities.

Drawn brick

In October, 1714 the publication of the decree became a last straw of patience of Peter I. The city began to be built, as we know, for 11 years before, and the first quarter of the century it reminded a huge building site on which to find the skilled bricklayer was not so - that simply. And after the Decree the tsar waited some time when bricklayers gather in St. Petersburg, but, by and large, did not wait, and therefore he disposed that the people capable to construction of stone constructions, were taken to St. Petersburg violently

Should tell that St. Petersburg was under construction in strict accordance with rules of fire safety of that time. Buildings in city line were allowed to be built in one lived to one line, fire-prevention gaps between them under the new decree made not less than 13 m

Of course, there was not enough brick, brick-works in all Russia could be counted on fingers, but the quirkiest people quickly found a way how to deceive the tsar. They built the usual wooden house, molded a thin layer of clay which was painted " on walls; under a brick . At fast driving it was impossible to distinguish the painted house from capital. But also here the stick was about two ends: if drawn brick left very beautifully and unnaturally, the tsar could stop and become interested from where he appeared such improbable brick . And then to artists would be not to take down the heads

the Unemployed rushed to the capital

Construction of St. Petersburg was occupation not from pleasant. As then, one and a half centuries later, Nikolay Nekrasov (the truth, concerning construction of the railroad), " will write in the work; Work is this, Vanya, was scary heavy, not on a shoulder to one . The century of the bricklayer on the penetrating Nevsky winds was very short, no warm clothes rescued - try - to stay 14 - 16 hours in conditions when scolds to the liver. But other exit was not: it was necessary to build! By the way, in seven years prior to emergence of the Decree considered today there was even more strict: about distribution of punishment for escape from St. Petersburg on the parents, wives and children who ran away. So especially also you will not run away if you believe in God and Christianly you treat a family

A in general, in those days the fires were almost unrestrained elements. Burned out the whole cities. That is why the tsar made the order that house owners have to use as material for roofs only a tile as in Europe. On the one hand it was remarkable - tile roofs did not promote spread of fire. Casual sparks died away, and brands easily got off kryuchyam. But with another - the tile was very low-quality in those days: in - the first, the roof sank under weight of snow, in - the second, the tile gathered a lot of moisture and rafters under it began to decay. And, in - the third, cost very much which settled in pockets, as if now told, foreign producers...

A prototype of frame construction

But stone houses were under construction much more slowly, than wooden. And Peter I would not be Peter I if did not find a way out of the created situation. He forbade to build wooden houses and that speed of construction continued to remain high in the capital, disposed to build mud huts . In the beginning builders built wooden frameworks, and then they were covered with clay which then was painted under a brick already officially. By the way, current frame construction is based on the same method, however, construction materials in three centuries significantly changed

Peter I disposed to construct several mud huts near Peter and Paul fortresses, and called them exemplary . That is any rich person could build the dwelling on this project that accelerated process of construction of a mud hut. Though there was minus - it is impossible to build the multystoried building of clay, and honorable grandees all - wanted that their dwellings differed from others. Then the tsar allowed them to decorate turrets with various spikes

to us Peter I today...

But the most important, to the sovereign it was succeeded to avoid chaos and spontaneity at construction what you will not tell about a present situation when new buildings arise sometimes very spontaneously. Peter I accepted three main directions in construction policy: a) the state undertook the guide of works on drainage of the soil and to laying of streets and embankments; b) it occupied strong points of the city plan from which the center of St. Petersburg was the main thing; c) private builders houses not in a site, and on " obliged to build; red " line; streets.

The sovereign died too early, having managed to see only main contours one of the most beautiful Russian cities. Its decree was repealed in 1741, partly from - for the fact that by then there were many new brick-works, and also there were many bricklayers (fortunately, not only manumissions ) . Besides, since Peter I`s death rumors that the capital here - here will be returned to Moscow did not cease, so, it was necessary to make presentable and the second capital.

It was not succeeded to make St. Petersburg the stone city. Even a century later, in the 19th century, wooden houses made 2/3 urban development. So, in 1833 from 7976 houses of St. Petersburg only 2730 were stone, and 5246 - wooden. But, nevertheless, in the city then not less than 30 stone houses year including such " were built; " palaces; as Peter and Paul Cathedral, Menshikov`s Palace, Summer palace of Petr, Twelve boards . In a word, the first step is the hardest