The railroad begins with Russia?
Originally-track roads appeared on developments of a stone, in mines and coal mines. The first so-called rails represented wooden bars - lezhn. The first mentions of them belong to the middle of the 16th century. On such-track way the horse could haul freight by 4 times bigger, than on an ordinary dirt road.
However wooden lezhn quickly wore out, vehicles descended from a way. To reduce wear wooden lezhny, they began to be strengthened iron or pig-iron strips. For prevention of descents of vehicles from a way on lezhnyakh began to do zakraina.
Pig-iron rails appeared in the 18th century. One of the first pig-iron roads about 160 m long was built on Aleksandrovsk plant in Petrozavodsk (The Onega plant) in 1788 under the leadership of A.S. Yartsev. Width of a track was about 0,8 m. The rail was angular. The movement on this way was 12 times easier, than on ordinary dirt roads. Such design of a way was more perfect, however in use the surface of rails got littered and showed big resistance to swing.
This reason, probably, led to emergence of the convex rails with an elliptic form of a surface of driving entered by the mining engineer P. K. Frolov. Wheels had the trench corresponding to a rail head form. This rail was a prototype of a modern railway rail.
The first Konno - the pig-iron road with convex rails about 2 km long was constructed in Russia in 1806 - 1809 by P. K. Frolov on the Zmeinogorsky mine of Kolyvano - Voskresensky plants in Altai. It was the first-ever railroad with all its basic elements: the road had embankments, dredging, a viaduct, the bridge through the river to Korbalikh on 20 stone columns up to 11 m high. The bias of the line did not exceed 14%. On this road one horse could haul freight by 25 times bigger, than on a dirt road.
Similar roads in America appeared only in 17 years, and in England - in 10 - 15 years.
In 1755 for transportation of breed on mines of Altai the narrow-gage way with wooden rails on which wooden trolleys moved was already constructed. Along a way the hummock loop was tense. For its reduction in the movement the horses rotating a pulley were used. On each trolley there were about two clips which could be fastened serially to one or other party of a loop of the leading cable. Thanks to it, there was an opportunity to stop trolleys or to change the direction of their movement at the continuous movement of the leading cable.
The talented Russian engineer P. K. Frolov offered a number of projects of construction of roads in Altai, and in 1812 - the project of the solevozny road between the Lake Elton and Volga about 150 km long. These projects were beyond intra factory transport. Nominating them, Frolov advanced all countries of Western Europe and America. But imperial officials did not support these plans grandiose for those times.
the Big step forward in development of railway business including a railway track, construction in 1842 - 1851 of the line St. Petersburg - Moscow 651 km long was. On the line shirokopodoshvenny rails weighing 1 meter of 29 kg (linear density of 29 kg/m), 5,486 m long and 89 mm high were for the first time applied; the bed had thickness of 0,5 m on embankments and 0,8 m in dredging and consisted of two layers: top - from granite crushed stone 18 cm thick and lower - sandy or gravel. In the course of construction contractors began to apply only sandy ballast.
Track width at insistance of P. P. Melnikov and other Russian engineers was established 5 feet (1524 mm). Millers emphasized that in favor of the track 1435 mm wide dominating abroad “ there are no convincing arguments “ the track in 1829 mm will lead to a useless excessive consumption of materials, and the loading capacity of cars will not increase.
Along with development of railway construction also the science about a railway track developed. Engineer P. P. Millers in 1835 offered a formula for calculation of rails taking into account influence of mobile loading. Impacts of a rolling stock on a way were investigated by professor K. Yu. Tseglinsky in 1903 in the work “ The Railway track in curves “. The big contribution to calculations of a way on durability was made by the academician N. P. Petrov.
Domestic experts conducted a lot of work on creation of new designs, improvement of science about a railway track. However in the conditions of imperial Russia their many undertakings did not find due support therefore the railway transport in imperial Russia was technically developed poorly.