With what future children`s writer Korney Chukovsky studied in one class?
on October 19, 1938, 70 years ago, stopped heart of the person who was one of the thinnest masters of the word, and in the most difficult genre of literary creativity - the children`s book. It is difficult to consider how many generations of the Soviet children studied kindness on books of this writer. One of the most memorable miniatures - “ Brave duckling “. You remember?
“ Every morning the hostess took out to ducklings a plateful of chopped eggs. It put a plate near a bush, and itself left.
As soon as ducklings ran up to a plate, suddenly from a garden the big dragonfly took off and began to be turned over them.
It so terribly chirred that the frightened ducklings ran away and hid in a grass. They were afraid that the dragonfly will bite all of them.
A an angry dragonfly sat down on a plate, tried food and then departed “ …
the Author of this fairy tale - Boris Stepanovich Zhitkov - was born on September 11, 1882 in Novgorod, in a family of the mathematics teacher and pianist. The father of future writer is Stepan Vasilyevich Zhitkov - was a mathematics teacher. Very competent teacher: according to the textbooks written to them school students studied arithmetics and geometry several decades.
Here only the administration had claims to Stepan Vasilyevich: it, it seems, “ hob-nobbed “ with unreliable elements, revolutionaries, rebels and in general with all who were dissatisfied with the existing political system. All this forced Zhitkov - the senior to take a family and to move at first to St. Petersburg, and then on the South, to Odessa.
The by any ship
Here to Boris it was pleasant to b much more, than in Novgorod. He very quickly made friends with local “ gavansky “ boys, it was let willingly on the ships by simple sailors, on many vessels the bright boy knew all corners and back streets. He with a great interest listened to stories of seamen about the distant countries, learned to understand foreign languages, imitating French, British, Dutches …
When Boris was given to the second Odessa gymnasium, it was the young man, already rather confident in the forces. He one of the first marked out the high thin schoolmate who often span at lessons and received remarks. The schoolmate was called Korney Chukovsky, and he very much envied Bor. At least because, in - the first, Zhitkov was able to play a violin, in - the second, he has the boat under a sail, in - the third, said that Borya had a Canis trained Major and the telescope, in which it was possible to consider stars … at night, of
But not only it Zhitkov bribed. He knew the price to each word, is rare when to whom started talking. After the termination of a gymnasium, in 1900, arrived on mathematical faculty of Novorossiysk university (contrary to writing it settled down in Odessa, but not in Novorossiysk), but in a year it was transferred to faculty of natural sciences. During study he became the member of yachts - club, repeatedly participated in races, sailed, visited Varna, Marseille, Jaffa, Constanta, passed examination for the navigator of long voyage.
The weapon for the risen proletariat When revolution of 1905 began
, Boris with progressive students adjoined revolutionaries. Together with six companions it protected the Jewish quarters of Odessa from riots of chernosotenets. It was handed the revolver (for those times carrying the weapon almost automatically meant penal servitude), in kitchen while in the house there was no family, Boris made nitroglycerine for bombs, secretly brought on a small boat boxes with the weapon from Izmail, Constanta, Varna for the risen sailors, was a member of a sailor`s stachkom.
As he was not arrested, still a riddle. But its expelled that from university as “ unreliable “ again allowed to lectures. In different sources there is no exact answer to a question: whether Boris Zhitkov managed to graduate from the university in Odessa? Apparently and, if to consider that in 1909 it was sent to a scientific expedition across Yenisei. And right after the end of expedition he went to study to Sankt - the St. Petersburg Polytechnical institute, as shipbuilding office. In the summer of 1912, during sea practice, Zhitkov made global cruise on uchebno - the cargoship: it rounded all Europe, there passed Gibraltar, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, floated the coast of Africa up to Madagascar, then went to India, to the island Ceylon, to Shanghai, Japan, Vladivostok. Once it began the ship`s boy, eventually, rose on “ to a ladder “ to the assistant to the captain.
The brilliant officer, the talented engineer
A still very few people know that in 1914 it worked at shipbuilding plant in Nikolaev; in 1915 checked serviceability of vessels before their exit in the sea in Arkhangelsk; in 1916 accepted the aircraft engines for the Russian planes produced in England. Once in London Zhitkov face to face faced the former schoolmate Korney Chukovsky who arrived to the English capital with writers. Boris pretended that Korney who rushed to him with the embraces just mistook. And only late at night he crept in Chukovsky`s number, and they talked over “ for life “.
After a socialist revolution Boris Stepanovich taught on workers` faculty in Odessa mathematics and drawing, managed technical school. Eventually, decided to return to St. Petersburg, there was it in the fall 1923. First he was not lucky - it was not succeeded to get a job on service neither in an aviation workshop, nor in the Leningrad port, nor in shipbuilding technical school. Zhitkov absolutely was was upset, but then someone prompted to him that in Leningrad there is a " magazine; Sparrow “ which is edited by Samuil Marshak. Like, in the magazine big deficiency of the writers capable to compose books for children … of
Some critics claim that Zhitkov`s arrival to literature was casual. Like, if he was lucky in the same port, the Soviet literature would lose the original children`s writer. As one of heroes " spoke; Mastera and Margarita “ - “ I Protest! “. If the person has the huge life experience, big love to Russian and ability “ to insert to the place “ variety of words if it is exacting and very scrupulous to itself(himself), without hesitating to rewrite the page by the page - it would be surprising if such talent would not prove in any way.
First pancake masterpiece...
In any case, Zhitkov brought the story in “ Sparrow “ gave it to Marshak, and so far that read, sat down in a corridor to smoke a cigarette. He did not manage to finish smoking still as in a corridor several writers who rushed to " poured out; to the beginning writer “ with congratulations. And Marshak did not doubt - in a sky there ascended the new star. In February, 1924 in the magazine the first story of Zhitkov " was published; Over the sea “. The first collection - " is the same year published; Evil sea “ next year - following.
And then literary life was started turning! Zhitkov wrote surprisingly quickly and qualitatively. Here one fragment from his letter to Chukovsky dated on June 27, 1926:
“ Friend Cornelius. Affairs here what: the day before yesterday gave 2 books... It was necessary to make 4 books. Today terminated one. Another is written, but drawings are not made to it: I to it do drawings. Means, there were entirely two and to one drawings.
Think: for the last two months, I there in (State publishing house) - gave 7 books 4, total 11 " earlier;.
Such short, but bright life...
From the middle 30 - x years Boris Zhitkov who made already much in literature for the senior children began to address in increasing frequency kids, In 1934 in the Leningrad magazine “ Siskin “ the whole cycle of stories of Zhitkov for preschool children was printed: “ As the father rescued me “ “ As the elephant saved the owner from a tiger “ “ As one boy " sank; “ As I caught little men “. In 1935 to them increased “ Hunter and dogs “ “ Gawk “.
Not so long ago I read in one of “ unpublished “ articles in “ To School of life “ one author respected by me, the following phrase: “ And though writers Kharms and Vvedensky connected with the children`s magazine “ Siskin “ - shot, and for a long time put Zabolotsky, but did not touch Marshak, Schwartz, Zhitkov, Mikhalkov and Chukovsky did not hook … “
Why did not touch Zhitkov? In August, 1936 Boris Stepanovich began the surprising book for kids from three to six years, but by the sizes, on thickness it was unusual. Thirteen printed pages!
Zhitkov decided to tell in it about the railroad, the steamship, the subway, a zoo, about how catch fish, grow up wheat as the tank is arranged what is the Palace of pioneers and about many other. In a word - to write the encyclopedia for kids.
The hero of the book, four-year-old Alyosha, as well as all children at his age, continually asks the question “ Why? “. For it he was nicknamed the Why-asker. He goes by train, then floats by steamship, flies by plane itself also about everything that saw, tells … in the Winter of 1937 Boris Stepanovich got sick with
, but did not stop work over “ Why-asker “ over “ Ship " History;. Worked to exhaustion until the illness put it to bed. Slightly earlier in policlinic made a x-ray picture and found lung cancer in Boris Zhitkov. On October 19, 1938 Boris Stepanovich died. He lived only fifty six years, and his literary life was absolutely short - about fifteen years. But its books are read still. This time to children, grandsons and great-grandsons. These books teach good …