What jewels were loved by Cleopatra?
If to look at a collection of jewels what only flowers you will not find here! Red and violet, all shades green, orange and yellow, pink and blue. Dyes of stones are metals. For certain not all know that red color to a ruby, and green gives to an emerald chrome. He creates the coloring changing depending on lighting to alexandrite. Dyes of stones are also cobalt, nickel, iron, copper, manganese, vanadium, molybdenum and other metals. The same metal depending on conditions can give different coloring as, for example, chrome and copper. A copper oxide - red, and the copper oxide connected to water - green. Iron - the master - the painter, creates a huge color palette - brown, is red - black, pink, light-green, red …
the King among jewels - diamond. Diamonds happen different flowers: red, yellow, green, blue, black are more rare. It is the firmest, the most beautiful and one of the most rare stones. “ " Diamond; in translation from Greek means “ invincible, insuperable “. Decorated with these stones crowns of emperors. Was considered that this stone helps to win against the enemy. The ground diamond - diamond. Usually to diamonds process transparent diamonds since they are most valuable. These are expensive stones and not without reason speak, “ the best friends of girls are …. “. The biggest diamond - “ Kulingnang “ found in 1905 in South Africa, - weighed 650 grams. It was divided into a set of parts, ground and made 105 diamonds.
How diamonds were formed? Scientists assume that the birth of diamonds occurred millions thousands years ago when on the planet there was a big tectonic activity accompanied with earthquakes, explosions, eruptions of volcanoes, breaks of a terrestrial surface. Then the heated masses containing chemical element carbon had temperature about several thousand degrees. Carbon in such conditions turns into a crystal - diamond. Along with it also other stones were formed, but they were less resistant, than diamond, and many of them collapsed.
Beautiful Cleopatra, the Roman emperor Neron, other masters not less diamonds appreciated emeralds. Into Russia they were imported from east countries. It is transparent - a green emerald, is bluish - green (colors of a sea wave) aquamarine, golden hrizoberill are kinds of one stone - beryl. The metal which is in beryl and giving it such colourings was called in honor of it beryllium. There is a stone which loves “ to pretend to be “ beryl, his name is apatite. In translation from Greek “ apatao “ means “ I deceive “. Apatity contains chemical element - nonmetal phosphorus. Do the most valuable phosphoric fertilizer necessary for green plants of them.
The mineral, not remarkable by sight, the relative of ordinary sand - quartz is very widespread. The most beautiful kind of quartz - rock crystal. “ " Crystal; on - Greek means “ " ice;. So it was called not only from - for transparency. Crystal possesses ability to store a cool therefore in ancient centuries rich Romans ordered to masters crystal spheres to cool about them hands. Brothers of rock crystal are acquaintances much stones - violet amethyst, yellow tsitrin, gray chalcedony, a black morion, a red cornelian, sparkling “ cat`s eye “ smoky raukhtopaz.
The first Russian books on mineralogy were written by Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. It collected a huge collection of minerals and described properties of everyone. At the moment more than 3500 thousand different stones - precious and semiprecious are known. Many stones were synthesized artificially. But it does not prevent them to find the places in the hearts of ladies and their gentlemen.