How the bear was connected with gods? Symbolics of an image
To a bear in Russia since the most ancient times the relation special: and on the coats of arms yes on banners he flaunted, and as the owner of the wood was considered, yes the grandfather was called by the father... Our compatriots abroad were christened for a long time “ Russian bears “. And nowadays the bear the Olympic symbol is chosen, the official image of political party.
Having addressed history, we can notice what put here not only in what clumsy is considered the typical representative of the Russian fauna. This image was since ancient times perceived not just by an animal, however, not only at us.
Communication with the highest deities
In ancient cultures the bear appeared in quality of attribute of gods of the Top world. God of Vikings had their Torah even couple: a she-bear of the Viola - mother of all female beings - and Alti`s bear - a poroditel man`s. Celts recognized him as a sacred animal of very esteemed goddess Artio who also was sometimes represented in the form of a she-bear. And Mercury these people called “ bear “.
And in antique Greece there was a goddess accepting an image of a she-bear: Artemis, hunter and warrior. And her companion, the nymph Callisto, was turned into a she-bear and sent by Zeus to space distances in the form of constellation of the Big Dipper.
At Artemis`s temple it was necessary to support the tamed bear. Wild it was necessary to sacrifice to it. On spring in honor of this goddess Komoyeditsa`s holiday dated to okonchaniyumedvezhy hibernation was spent (similar was available also for Slavs). In Attica her priestesses during a holiday dressed bear skins and executed cult dancing, being bear cubs.
“ Bear dancings “ for communication with gods were traditional and at the Siberian nationalities, and at North American Indians. In some cases members special " could only be participants of these ritual actions; bear “ societies. And in tradition of Slavs the ryazheniye under a bear, in particular, on the Christmas carol was widespread.
Bear lines are often seen in shape of the highest gods, creators of the Universe at peoples of the North: Torngarsoaka at labrabodsky Eskimos; Num at Nenets etc. the Highest god of Noomi - Taroom of the Ob ugr sent to the earth in a bear appearance of the son for protection people. According to Volga region legends, God could accept an image of a bear if wanted to seem to people.
Idea that the bear once was an inhabitant of heaven occurs also at the Buryat. The part of their tribes considers that on the earth its purpose - to punish sinners, another - that he was punished for attempt to frighten God. Khanty also think that the bear disobeyed God therefore it was overthrown from heaven.
In a number of traditions the bear participates in Creation of the world. Ylym Evenks believe that he helped the Raven to create the Universe, then was guilty and in punishment was put to look after people. Komi - permyata consider a bear of Osh as the creator of a terrestrial relief: it scratched the flat and flat soil claws, and mountains and bogs were as a result formed.
Similar myths remained at Selkups and the Komi - Zyrians, but there for the company the mammoth worked. And here the plot about a fault of a bear who, being a son of the Supreme deity of Yeon, looked from heaven at the earth appears too, became interested in a half of the pea dropped by the woman got down and regaled on it for what it was deprived by the parent of the right to come back home.
Communication with a next world
In Russia in age-old times god of Nizhny Novgorod of the world Velez who was an owner of the Underground kingdom corresponded to a bear. Echoes of these representations remained, for example, in the tale of a bear to whom the hunter chopped off a hinder leg and gave to the old woman to cook, and an animal, having built itself an artificial limb from a linden, came and began to demand to return it:
Creak a leg, creak, lime. And water - that sleeps. And the earth - that sleeps. And on villages sleep. One grandma does not sleep. On my skin sits. Spins my hair. My meat cooks. Dries my skin. this history comes to an end with
In the latest options safely, and here in earlier the final is tragic: the bear kills a married couple and drags off with himself. In other fairy tale - “ Ivashka Bear ear “ - the bear brings the hero to a faraway kingdom, i.e. to other world.
Old Russian names of Galaxies - “ Vlasozhelishch “ “ Volosyni “ - are also connected good luck by the Hair - Velez and a bear. The windows curtained by a bear skin are mentioned in the Russian funeral crying as a metaphor of death.
At ancient Germans the bear contacted Odin who had a troops from the died heroes transferred by Valkyries to Valkhalla. They were called eynkheriya and dressed bear and wolf skins, being wrapped in these animals, finding their force.
In the Perm culture the bear is presented as the watchman of the world of the dead. In the remained images it or is in the bottom of composition (over it or on it - a human skull), or goes against the course of the sun and bears on a back a figure of the person with the curtailed spiral on a breast.
Communication of a bear with a next world is traced in beliefs concerning the fact that his bones symbolize death and can negatively influence destiny of the person. In particular, tossing them under a skeleton of the house under construction promised misfortunes to the owner on all his life.
Generally, with different gods bears were known...
Whom the bear had to ancient people? Symbolics of an image