Our answer to Chamberlain! And who is such?
on October 16, 1863, 145 years ago, in Birmingham in a family of the successful politician and businessman Joseph Chamberlain happened an event which at the same time caused both great pleasure, and a huge grief. Joseph`s spouse, Gariyet, gave birth to the son, but could not recover from difficult delivery, having died on the same day. Also there was a heart-broken father on hands with the baby …
Of course, time heals wounds. And at Joseph who passed the term, small to our measures, in widowers, something about four years, and at Joseph - younger who in a family not to be confused was called by Austin. The boy did not see mother, but the father at first replaced to him everything, very much he made thrifty use of the son, however, at Joseph who was eternally vanishing on the next political fight - there was a little senior time for the kid.
The stepson hoped for himself
But as I already told, Chamberlain - the senior married for the second time, and in this marriage he gave birth to the second son named by Nevill. To it, but not his brother Joseph as many think, later more than half a century, it was succeeded to become 60 - m the prime minister - the minister of Great Britain, Joseph was limited to the fact that was the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
However we will return to the pink childhood of brothers. Of course, the attitude of mother of Nevill towards the stepson was not such ideal as it is possible to imagine, she punished Joseph much more often than Nevill. Some time the stepson was the closed child about whom speak: itself is canny. But, eventually, this circumstance played a role subsequently: without having got used to hope for anybody, except as for himself, Joseph torit to himself a way. Toril, it is rather a pun because for many years Chamberlain together with the brother was one of the " party leaders; Tory “.
It is quite natural that the influential father defined the eldest son at first in Rugby school, then - college (Cambridge), but the main school of policy Joseph - younger passed everything in Triniti - at home. The father often had guests, right after a lunch there were hot discussions at which the boy usually imperceptibly was present. Imperceptibly, because the politicians excited with dispute did not pay attention to the boy who settled down in a corner …
I in France learned, and in Germany
that it was the purposeful young man, also the fact that he received the first academic degree at the age of incomplete 23 years demonstrates. And then persuaded the father to send him for nine months to the Parisian School of political knowledge. Here Joseph was remembered as the person very balanced, legally competent and able to carry on dialogue too.
On Paris Chamberlain did not stop. Having for a while dropped in home, it went to travel, to one of universities of Germany again this time. I specially place emphases on it to emphasize that the young politician equally well understood both sworn enemies of French, and bewitched friends of Germans. It is surprising only as Chamberlain did not go to St. Petersburg. To admit, it had such rush, but the father ordered to return to it and charged a position of the personal secretary …
to Joseph Austen executed By then 25 years. The normal age for the politician, - was solved by the father and did everything possible in order that the son was elected in the English parliament. This focus was successful, it became the deputy from the district Ist - Vustershir near Birmingham, and represented the interests of the fellow countrymen during 22 (!) years.
The policy is a labyrinth
One of the most experienced English politicians of that time William Gladston, by then the speaker of parliament, having heard the first speech of Joseph Austen in legislature, was so shocked by logicality and argumentativeness of performance that did not keep from a praise, having declared that this young man will far go. And sir Gladston was a good judge of it, it is enough to remember his bright aphorism: “ The Policy is a labyrinth of which it is more difficult to get out, than to enter “.
Gladston presented Chamberlain to the English queen. Since then it became clear: in a sky of the English policy there ascended the new interesting star. Indeed, career of this person impresses: in 1892 he became the parliamentary organizer of party, in 1895 - lord Admiralteystva, in 1900 - the financial secretary of Treasury, in 1902 - the minister of mails and in 1903 - the chancellor of Treasury (i.e. Minister of Finance).
The policy took a lot of time. It is enough to tell that Joseph Austen Chamberlain was engaged in private life how his party got beaten at parliamentary elections of 1906. He married, also daughters became the father of two sons, but per se did not leave policy. Especially brightly his authority was shown in the period of the beginning of World War I when he persuaded administration to support France in war against Germany.
In 1915 he became the minister of affairs of India, in two years was forced to leave this post after scandal in which he was not involved. But scrupulousness did not allow to remain to Chamberlain on this post. In 1918 he was appointed the Minister of Finance, but played the main role in 1924 when being the appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, did everything possible to reconcile opponents on World War I - French and Germans. For this peacekeeping activity, together with the author of the plan of revival of the German economy vice-the U.S. President Charles G. Daues it was awarded Nobel Peace Prize for 1925.
The second intervention did not turn out
Of course, not everyone in the Soviet Russia liked activity of the won Joseph Austen Chamberlain`s proletariat, rigid in relation to the first-ever state. He agreed to the fact that in 1927 he nearly convoked a new crusade against the Soviet power. But there was not enough authority of the Nobel laureate and the experienced politician to realize these plans.
And now how expression " appeared; Our answer to Chamberlain “. On February 23, 1927 signed by Chamberlain the note with the requirement to stop the anti-English propaganda and military support of the revolutionary gomindanovsky government in China was sent to the leadership of the USSR. Four days later, on February 27, in “ To the truth “ there was article under the name “ Our answer to the English note “ and on March 2 in the same place - the note entitled “ Hi Cotonou! Here our answer to Chamberlain! “.
On June 9 Osoaviakhim organized under this name fund for fund raising on defense of the USSR and construction of air fleet. And writers Ilf and Petrov mentioned this expression in the novel “ Twelve chairs “ as one of possible plans of Ostap Bender. The great schemer assumed “ to extend the picture " which is not written yet, but ingeniously conceived; Bolsheviks write the letter to Chamberlain “ on a popular picture of the artist Repin: “ Zaporozhets write the letter to the sultan “.
As for Joseph Austen, he left the post in 1929 and since then was engaged in political career of the stepbrother Nevill who became the prime minister - the minister in only two months after on March 16, 1937 Joseph Austen died in London from apoplectic seizure …
Nevill`s Premiership lasted till March 10, 1940 when he gave way to Winston Churchill. The same year Nevill died …