What did not dream our philosophy?
B 1600 in Rome it was burned on Giordano Bruno`s fire.
The glorified scientist, the philosopher and the freethinker aroused indignation of all church authorities - both Catholics, and Protestants. In Elizabethan England he was no more welcome guest, than in papal Italy. The group of thinkers calling itself " was the only exception; School of night “.
The famous poet, the soldier and the diplomat Philipp Sidney personally invited him to England and accepted as dear visitor, having achieved for it permission to read series of lectures in Oxford. Bruno spent several months in England. Participants “ Schools of night “ actively attended his lectures. Later they discussed Bruno`s ideas at the meetings.
Shortly before it Copernicus subverted geocentric system of Ptolemaeus, and the Sun became the center of the Universe instead of Earth. Bruno went further Copernicus, having created the theory about a set of the worlds scattered in the infinite Universe. However he was not the only and even not first scientist who made this a hypothesis incredibly impudent for those times.
One of participants “ schools of night “ there was scientific Thomas Diggs who was born in Canterbury as well as Marlo. His father, Leonard Diggs, invented “ optical " glass; nowadays known under a telescope name, and Thomas in youth could see the star sky as earlier it did not happen to anybody. The show so struck it that he devoted the life to studying of astronomy and made a hypothesis of plurality of the worlds for several years before Bruno.
Among Diggs`s papers the portrait of the Danish astronomer Tikho to Braga was stored. On this portrait the heraldic board to Braga with the names written on it is represented: Sofie Gildenstern and Eric Rozenkrants. And the laboratory of the scientist was located near the lock Helsingor - Elsinor`s prototype.
The Shakespearean scholar Peter Asher found a set of the terms used by Diggs in his compositions in Hamlet`s speeches: “ opposition “ “ retrograde “ “ " connection; “ culmination “ “ tranformation “. Hamlet, the student of Wittenberg university, perfectly knew revolutionary scientific theories. Not without reason Claudius so opposed to his return to university. By the way, name “ Claudius “ appeared only in the second " edition; Hamlet “ - in one source the play of this name (not Danish) was not. Some researchers saw in it a hint on the Roman emperor Claudius. Asher noticed communication with other character of a classical antiquity - by the name of Claudius Ptolemaeus.
Hamlet`s sarcasm concerning his long stay on the sun can hint at heliocentric system of Copernicus. Copernicus was buried in Poland - can be, on that tiny ground for the sake of which gain Fortinbras started a military campaign to Poland.
Russian-speaking readers got used to read: “ A lot of things Exist, the friend Horatio that did not dream our philosophy “. However in the original Hamlet speaks: “ There are a lot of things in the sky and the earth “.
Four times, describing the person, the prince uses the word “ infinity “. The person - a microcosm is so infinite and mysterious, as well as the Universe which glass spheres failed, and behind their veil boundless and incomprehensible Space revealed.
In ten years prior to Hamlet the London audience saw on a scene of other researcher who is eager to comprehend secrets of the universe. He was a hero of the play Marlo, and he was called Faust.
Faust`s image is in many respects autobiographical. As well as participants “ Schools of night “ he is eager for knowledge and demands from Mephistopheles “ the book in which stars and planets, and also their ways and location " are described;. The demon at once gives him the text. Faust fluently looks through him and rejects with words: “ You lie “. This dialogue hints at the discussion which took place in Oxford between Bruno and university stars.
In 1616 there was the second " edition; Fausta “. In it several new scenes appeared. Officially it is considered that changes to the text were made by two little-known playwrights who were specially employed for this purpose by the owner of " theater; Rose “ Philip Henslou. However it is absolutely unclear why they brought in the play the new subject line, quite volume and risky. In the new edition Bruno appears at the papal yard - more true, it is brought chained in a chain. After interrogation pronounce it the death sentence. But Faust and Mephistopheles release Bruno and carry away away from Italy.
The new character is called Bruno Saksonets - a significant name if to remember that an early story about Hamlet belongs to Sakson Grammatik`s feather, and Wittenberg - the most free university of Europe at which Copernicus`s system was studied - was in Saxony.
Hamlet knows not only astronomy, but also anatomy. It professionally describes blood circulation in a human body. Perhaps, the author got the data from Miguel Servet`s works - the scientist - the physician who, as well as Bruno, was burned on a fire in Geneva. The fanatical Protestant John Calvin who was hating both carnal, and spiritual pleasures and forbade not only unseemly thoughts, but also balls, theaters and elegant clothes was his executioner.
Deadly and irreconcilable enemies are Catholics and Protestants - with identical rage defended the medieval model of the universe which is based on three foundations: Bible doctrines, Aristotle`s logic and Ptolemaeus`s cosmogony, trying to drive the boundless depths of Space and the personality which revealed to minds of thinkers, creators and visionaries of the Renaissance into their Procrustean bed. Fight for free thought and the creativity based on reason and intuition instead of instructions and doctrines was really heroic and often led to the tragic final.
And the prince in a raincoat of color of night wandering about Elsinor`s corridors with the invariable book in hands was one of heroes and martyrs of this fight, as well as his creator who disappeared under Hecate`s raincoat - goddesses of night and patronesses of secret and forbidden knowledge - in that day when on the earth British celebrated its annual festival, and in the sky for a while took the place of the Sun seven stars.