What is copyright?
and in any society the biggest problem of all times and the people were At all times lack of copyright, before its emergence, certainly. And what is it? And how depends on it and literary work is regulated by it?
Earlier, before its emergence, the persons publishing this or that work publishers, so acted at the edition of works often on - piratically, deceiving trustful creators for whom often the main thing was after the creation of work to see an exit it to the public. At the same time realities were quite often very far from those promises which they gave to writers during the preliminary arrangement, and and this, often the oral arrangement which is not fixed anywhere was sometimes ignored by the last, and poor writers, as a rule, the deprived opportunities to prove the right for authorship of this or that work, in case of a conflict situation, could lose also those insignificant fees (The fee - remuneration for work of persons of liberal professions. Explanatory dictionary of S. Ojegov), which to them were offered by publishers, impudently using at the same time literary lawlessness.
At the same time in the Middle Ages the author tried to look for protection in imperial or royal privileges, entirely hoping on monarshyyu favor which happened also deceptive. Often writers, trying to avoid confusion and confusion in legal questions in which they, obviously, were not strong, tested as sellers of own works, and repeatedly rewritten.
At the same time such trade did not do well to the writer forced to come off the workplace behind a desk in calm of an office and earning as a result only cheap reward admirers of his talent who, having received it “ squeezeed out “ work, could not wait next because his creator just could not create more, having exhausted in chaotically - desperate attempts to attach written.
It is well-known that history of emergence of publishing and copyright are closely bound and interconnected. Gradually with development of printing art there was a need for protection of copyright of the writer and the publisher as the book began to carry goods signs, began to be bought and on sale and consequently, also the problem of protection of interests of the author who created work and the publisher who published it became essential.
In the 19th century really revolutionary turn in public consciousness and in his views of author`s work, of its payment became not the so last on the value. Circulations of the released works began to grow, and the glory and popularity of recognized masters made impossible to conceal a real name of the author from the reader and not to pay his literary work, the fees began to grow and could already at successful development of the situation bring to the author of work absolutely quite good prosperity.
Generally in all European countries to the middle of the 19th century the system of copyright began to develop, in Russia the mention of the act which regulated copyright questions is among the first mentions of the system of copyright beginning to develop, it became “ Censorship statute “ 1828, the containing special chapter “ About authors and publishers of books “.
in 1830 was approved “ Provision on the rights of authors, translators and publishers “ and in 1877. The code of laws of the Russian Empire included also norms on copyright. However already the first decrees of the Soviet power were directed to attempt of realization of idea of the state monopoly for literary works on which the state also tried to appropriate the property rights.
Till 1962 in the field of copyright Bases of copyright and the law " were engaged in regulation of legal relationship; About copyright “ By RSFSR 1928
Bases of the civil legislation of 1961, and then and in the Civil code of RSFSR included 1964 sections on copyright, and since 1993 the Act of the Russian Federation " came into force; About copyright and allied rights “ who with changes and additions acted and regulated provisions on copyright till January 1, 2008. Nowadays similar functions are carried out by part fourth of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
It is necessary to recognize that in the 20th century situation in copyright became much better, and copyright began to provide to the writer by means of the above-stated acts protection of his property right, and at the same time it began to provide a possibility of prevention of various violations, at the same time also the international agreements on copyright questions were considered. All this, certainly, promoted increase in the income of the author from publications, including, abroad and from the translations of works of art of authors of other states. At the same time, thanks to the translations, the authors earlier poorly famous outside the countries began to gain wide popularity...
Thanks to development of copyright for the first time in process of history of literature the writer could try to obtain real material independence, at the same time his work became more independent of need to carry out orders to which the soul did not lie, and to write on a potreba of certain customers on whom it was dependent. However, at the same time the many-sided reader`s mass of consumers - buyers of literary production began to carry out a role of the wealthy customer dictating subjects of works. At each writer appeared and “ the “ the reader - the same “ customer “ indulging literary tastes of which, this or that writer also creates the works of art.
And it is quite natural and reasonable because this or that writer, being the carrier of a certain character and attitude, always finds in this many-sided mass of readers of carriers of one with it ideology and mentality which become his regular and devoted readers and admirers of his creativity.
Thus, exercising the copyright, the writer finds to himself adherents, grateful buyers of his goods in the form of literary production - the substantiated fruit of its literary activity. And therefore to the new master - the reader the writer also tries to pay as much as possible attention and respect, showering with it in the addresses to him with the most flatter epithets for the reader, type: my darling, inquisitive, exacting, exacting, dear and other. And why is also not present? The reader, certainly, deserves such epithets!