What psychological effects prevent us to perceive each other adequately? I want to tell
to you, kind readers, of some psychological effects preventing people adequately to perceive each other Here and now. Well, we will begin without excess prefaces?
1. Effect of expectation. the new mathematics teacher Comes to work to school, for example. The director speaks to it: “ Nina Ivanovna, we in the ninth And have one such pupil … Vasya Petrov, oh you namuchatsya with him! Oh and poor student, tease, hooligan! “ Nina Ivanovna Enters a class and first of all “ looks for, looks out “ careless pupil. Found … and begins to try on in the consciousness to it the labels pasted by the director: poor student, tease, hooligan. In other words, the teacher expects every minute that behavior which was described her by the principal from Vasya Petrov. The teacher unconsciously looks for, emphasizes each trifle, each line which would correspond to descriptions of the director. Of course, expectations can be met, and Vasya really will be the bad pupil, but it is possible that the young man improved to the best, or the director to him was unfair, disliked him, here and visited these awful labels, and the boy at all not such is. In the second case Nina Ivanovna`s expectation is not met, and she or as the true teacher is glad to it and in every possible way supports Vasya Petrov, or continues to see and look for reasons for exposure of bad notes and remarks in his study and behavior.
2. Effect of an aura. appearance of the newcomer in a class Let`s say is expected. In a week before the director told a little about him, about that school where he studied earlier. But about that school, especially about that class from where appearance of the newcomer is expected, ill fame goes: “ Oh, the eighth B at " school; 33 “ - class of boors, fools, idlers! “ Means, and about the pupil who is going to come, future schoolmates can be unflattering opinion too, that is its emergence is already in advance surrounded with an aura of the boor, poor student, idler. To dispel this aura not always happens simply. The brand new pupil can easily be the excellent student or a horoshist who is brought up by the boy who left a former class just from - for unwillingness to study with bad children.
3. Effect of the first impression. Saw, for example, the young man amazingly beautiful girl also fell in love with her at first sight. Several days go behind it, and does not dare to approach and start talking - such divine and unapproachable it seems to it. The beautiful, stylish, picked-up with taste dress, a snow-white smile deprived of rest of the guy. But once it decides to approach the beautiful stranger and to start talking to her … And … about horror … the girl is rough, near, “ empty “. The first impression thaws as a smoke, and the desire to meet the girl thaws. It is possible to give and an opposite example - the newcomer - the girl very full, ugly, dressed on - rural comes to a class. Nobody greets it, nobody looks at it and wants to be on friendly terms with it. But there passes time, it turns out that the girl - the excellent runner, the kind soul, the inventor also well sings. Schoolmates already reach for it, it submits them the charm and from friends there is no release.
4. Effect of a projection. its Essence consists that the person attributes to other person those traits of character and qualities which are in him. Let`s say very envious considers that all envy it around, and the good-natured person is confident that in the world there are much more kind people, than angry.
5. Effect of generalization. Let`s say in the fifth class the first time was an informatics lesson. The new teacher came, and all notice that he is some somewhat eccentric. It is slovenly dressed, all the time tells about the remarkable computer and does not explain new material. Then in the seventh class the teacher of informatics exchanged, the same odd fellow telling only about the computer games and who is strange dressed came to his change. In the ninth class the director says again that the former teacher left and now another will come. Children in a class already expect appearance of the odd fellow. They can argue so: “ Oh and all programmers such, all teachers of informatics! “ Though this teacher can be the competent expert able and the person interested to explain material, but not to talk endlessly about the computer.
It is not the full list of effects, and only those which came me back to memory and to learn about which, I think, it was interesting to you. These effects do not need to try to be eliminated on a root, just it is necessary to remember their existence and to make so that they did not prevent interesting, productive communication.