Rus Articles Journal

What was told by the ghost to Hamlet?

About ten years ago the American writer and the publisher Alex Jack paid attention to a tiny discrepancy between the first, second and third " edition; Hamlet .

In the first edition of 1602 the ghost described to Hamlet the murderer so:

O wicked will and gifts!

(Oh, vicious will and gifts!)

In a year, in the second edition, his words sounded differently:

O wicked wit, and giftes

(Oh, vicious wisdom and gifts)

I, at last, in the First Folio lowercase letters turn into capital:

Oh wicked Wit, and Gifts

At first sight, it does not speak about anything essential - the author changed one word, exclusively. However everything looks much more seriously if to remember that a surname of the ominous archbishop Kenterberiysky who shipped England in a nightmare, of Whitgift .

In 1602, at the time of the first " edition; Hamlet he was still living therefore at the author of an opportunity are not openly to tell his name. In several months he died - and after his death will turned into wit . And in the First Folio of part of his name were written from a capital letter to make a hint clearer.

Further the Ghost tells how this vicious person tempted before the virtuous queen. He uses approximately the same words which were used by priests - the reformists accusing the archbishop that it tempted Elizabeth, having subordinated her to the power.

Who was the ghost`s prototype? to

In the play it is told that Hamlet is the senior and Gertrude lived together thirty years. So many years proceeded Elizabeth`s relations with Robert Dudley, the count Leyster. He died suddenly and suddenly. Suspected that he was poisoned.

During lifetime of Leyster Elizabeth remained the defender of freedoms for the sake of which she in youth threw down a challenge to all Catholic Europe and drew upon itself uncountable plots and attempts of tireless envoys of the Pope blessing them on murder heretics .

However the sudden death of darling cracked something in it. And the aging queen gave the soul and reason to John Vitzhift.

Whether there was between the archbishop and the queen not only a spiritual, but also physical proximity? It is unknown. She called it the little black husband also admired his wisdom and sanctity. Before death she called him, and it remained with it up to the end.

And this ominous union of church and the state covered England with a black shadow. Elizabeth always emphasized that she is not going to climb in minds and hearts of the citizens to check the validity and durability of their belief. But Vitzhift argued differently. For it the religion was inseparably linked with the power, and he considered himself by an embodiment of that and another. He perceived any criticism in the address as change and sacrilege in fight against which all means are permitted.

And here the British who still yesterday were proud of freedom for the sake of whom they battled against all Europe in horror found out how the inquisition ghost comes back, poisoning them smother threats, fear and lie. In terrible To Star Chamber hitched up on a rack, broke bones, cut out interiors and ripped skin. Because owners of ugly opinions are ought by the spoiled bodies.

Hundreds of people were tortured and executed, flung in prisons and sent to exile. The great charter of liberties and freedom of speech and debates became reminiscence. Vitzhift`s spies scurried about everywhere, and nobody could be sure that his word is not overheard even in own house.

And what queen? She tried to maneuvre between the devil and the deep sea, and nobody knows what occurred in her soul.

In Hamlet three times are mentioned poison. The king was poisoned with the henbane poured to him in an ear - and England was drugged by tyranny, fear and lie. The queen drank the poisoned bowl where poison was thrown under the guise of a precious pearl. And the participle bowl in Anglican church instead of the world and blessing was filled with deadly poison of intolerance and hypocrisy.

Hamlet was poisoned with a sword which he had to battle in an honest duel. And debates - verbal duels, before free - were poisoned with violence and tyranny. Sometimes one of opponents went from debate straight to a rack.

And what Marlo? It truly served the queen seven years, glorifying her on a scene and risking for the sake of it life on secret service. It was at glory top, it was surrounded by friends and admirers, it was the in the world of literature, theater, policy and science.

And all this failed in a flash. Prince of poets and Favourite of muses it was declared the dead and became the derelict. He had no right to write lines under the name. The chasm of dirt and slander fell upon it. It was separated from all who were dear to it. The London theater was closed for it - can be, forever.

Whether he thought of suicide when the choice between tortures and execution - and the ghost`s life suddenly fell upon it? Judging by Hamlet`s monologue - yes. Both the choice between life and a non-existence was similar to a narrow track between two abysses - it continued to be, but in other appearance and under other name. As the grave-digger noticed: It is my grave, but I in it do not lie .

Whether the queen before death managed to read a scene in which Hamlet tries to awaken Gertrude`s conscience? Whether it turned the eyes in soul and whether saw black and red spots there - ghosts of the dead tortured from its consent and from her name?

We never learn it. She died in several months after the first " edition; Hamlet . Soon also the archbishop died. And in the following edition of Hamlet his name appeared.

Further - silence