How the beard participated in fight of ideas?
“ Brosha everything, I will release to myself a beard, and the tramp I will go across Russia …. “.
Different times happened, and the mankind belonged to a beard very seriously. And it is very ambiguous. The beard carried mystical sense, the beard was a shrine (“ a spittle in a beard “) it was both a laughing stock and penalties and sanctions.
Okolofilosofsky theories adapted to a beard, and there are a wish to believe in them if not a categoriality of statements. Far more interestingly than the historian - ethnographic researches in this area.
It is quite possible that purely hygienic gesture was a pervotolchok to disposal of a beard. More conveniently to look after - to comb, crumbs do not need to be shaken and it is less parasites. It is already more difficult further. Ethnographers correlate head and person hair to a symbol of courage and force. It is known since bible times, it is enough to remember an antiquated plot Samson and Dalile. Also the beard symbolizes man`s force (naturally, a secondary sexual character, and besides it is possible and to grow bald, from it nobody is insured). And, of course, the beard was always a sign of freight of years, and, respectively, wisdom.
The Ostrizhennost and a vybritost, in turn, is treated as social control and reunion with society. And here reckoned as a symbol of grief and extreme expression of a grief vyryvany a hair and beards (with a posypaniye of as ashes).
There are more amusing assumptions. It is enough to esteem Cyril Parkinson, the author well-known “ Parkinson`s Laws “. In it “ Beards and barbarians “ not only the wittiest historical digression about a beard is given, but also the conclusion is drawn: a beard - a sign of decline of society, the certain cover hiding doubts and fluctuations.
History of the European beard looks a little chaotically. For example, during an era of antiquity and the early Middle Ages the man was most free in the choice: could carry a long or short beard, could shave, pull out, leave a bristle. Ancient Greeks liked to twist small beards. And here Alexander of Macedon won the world with clean-shaven army.
Later European monarchs already dictated fashion on a beard, on a smooth chin. Nevertheless there were enough beards, and many of them became own symbols. The famous emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire of the German nation (quite so it was also called at that time) - Frederick I - became everywhere known as Barbarossa - “ red (or red) borodushka “. (All of us well remember from the history “ plan Barbarossa “ - Hitlerite plan of attack on the Soviet Union).
One more celebrity - Henry VIII - it “ Blue beard “ he is a founder of a dynasty of the Tudor dynasty and the hero of the Shakespearean play - reached us and in the form of a terrifying story, and a common noun.
In Russia chaos on the persons “ appeared “ much later. To Pyotr all of us were uniform and with the gladkovybrity person looked at the rare foreigner mistrustfully. And how to trust if refused to beardless even blessing? The Petrovsky decree allowed to carry beards only to peasants. And that, at entry into the city from one country beard one kopek undertook, a considerable penalty fee - from 30 to 600 rubles was raised from all others (huge money for those times!) . All this was called duty, and paid it the special counter - " was given; borodovy sign “.
Ekaterina repealed this decree, nevertheless, was considered to carry a beard to the nobleman indecent, and at the time of Nicholas I`s reign unfortunate could detain, even to bring to police. But in the middle of the 19th century the beard becomes fashionable in the environment of the intellectuals and not soldier of the nobility. Not to mention the Russian writers.
At last, in 1881 the beard is allowed to officers, at first elite - naval, then - all the rest. But it became forbidden at footmen and waiters, it was not allowed at actors, probably, owing to purely professional reasons.
From the middle of the 19th century also certain general regularities, both for Russia, and for the West began to be looked through. It only did not concern priests (the orthodox clergy without fail carries a beard, Catholic and protestansky priests have a shaving - surely).
Revolution of 1848 became a milestone of changes and the reason of a mass borodatost. Since then the beard got one more symbolical sense: revolutionary. This sense is traced from narodovolets, anarchists up to “ barbudos “ - Cuban bearded men. The beard, a borodushka, a borodishcha, a beard, a small beard - long remained a call sign to society …
A if to be consecutive, then moustaches are a compromise? Between “ I - the “ and I - “ in itself “?
And again times slightly - slightly changed. With escalating popularity of an espanyolka the beard loses also this meaning. And the aspiration to youthful appearance forces even the laziest men to have a shave.
And let will be as will be. And we will look in expensive faces, beardless or bearded (or it is simply prickly - shchetinisty) and not to see in it any sense, except the main thing.